Abstract In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture, bioinoculants usage as providers of a crop's needs is a method to limit environmental damage. In this study, a collection of cultivable putative plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with wheat crops was obtained and this bacterial sample was characterized in relation to the functional diversity of certain PGP features. The isolates were obtained through classical cultivation methods, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and characterized for PGP traits of interest. Functional diversity characterization was performed using Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The most abundant genera found among the 346 isolates were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Enterobacter. Occurrence of PGP traits was affected by genus, niche, and sampling site. A large number of genera grouped together with the ability to produce indolic compounds; phosphate solubilization and siderophores production formed a second group related to fewer genera, in which the genus Burkholderia has a great importance. The results obtained may help future studies aiming prospection of putative plant growth promoting bacteria regarding the desired organism and PGP trait.
Cryptococcal infection had an increased incidence in last years due to the explosion of acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic and by using new and effective immunosuppressive agents. The currently antifungal therapies used such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole have certain limitations due to side effects and emergence of resistant strains. So, a permanent search to find new drugs for cryptococcosis treatment is essential. Ocimum gratissimum, plant known as alfavaca (Labiatae family), has been reported earlier with in vitro activity against some bacteria and dermatophytes. In our work, we study the in vitro activity of the ethanolic crude extract, ethyl acetate, hexane, and chloroformic fractions, essential oil, and eugenol of O. gratissimum using an agar dilution susceptibility method towards 25 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. All the extracts of O. gratissimum studied showed activity in vitro towards C. neoformans. Based on the minimal inhibitory concentration values the most significant results were obtained with chloroformic fraction and eugenol. It was observed that chloroformic fraction inhibited 23 isolates (92%) of C. neoformans at a concentration of 62.5 µg/ml and eugenol inhibited 4 isolates (16%) at a concentration of 0.9 µg/ml. This screening may be the basis for the study of O. gratissimum as a possible antifungal agent.
Com o objetivo de analisar a variação anatômica ao longo do caule de Terminalia ivorensis, estudaram-se amostras de madeira de três indivíduos, nos planos radial e axial. Para tal, corpos de prova foram obtidos a partir de discos de madeira, de 2 em 2cm, no sentido medula-câmbio. A metodologia usada para desenvolver o trabalho foi aquela tradicionalmente recomendada para estudos em anatomia vegetal. A descrição anatômica realizada seguiu as recomendações do IAWA Committee. No sentido radial do caule, alguns elementos anatômicos apresentaram tendências de variação definidas e significativas estatisticamente quando aplicado o teste Tukey para comparação de médias. São eles: freqüência, diâmetro e comprimento dos elementos de vaso, freqüência de raios/mm linear, comprimento dos raios em número de células, e comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras. Já no sentido axial, todas as variáveis analisadas não se mostraram estatisticamente significativas. Os resultados observados devemse, principalmente, à caracterização bem definida dos lenhos juvenil e adulto na madeira de Terminalia ivorensis.
In order to verify anatomical stem variation of the Terminalia ivorensis wood, were studied wood samples at three different heights in the radial and axial planes. Proof bodies were gotten at a 2cm interval from the pith towards the vascular cambium. The utilized methodology to develop the job followed the traditionally recommended methodology for vegetable anatomy studies. The anatomical description followed the recommendations of the IAWA Committee. In the radial stem direction, some anatomic elements showed a well defined trend, which are statistically significant when using the Tukey test for measures comparison. They were: frequency, diameter and length of the vessel elements, ray frequency/linear mm, length of rays in number of the cells and fiber length and thickness. On the other side, in the axial stem direction, was not found anything statistically significant. This results were observed principally due the clear presence of the juvenile and adult wood in the lumber of Terminalia ivorensis.
SUMMARY General observations were made on the durability of wood ties used in the old Tocantins railroad. Nine different timbers were identified, with Itauba (Mezilaurus itauba) showing the greatest durability. Other species that also showed high durability were Acapu (Vouacapoua americana), Macaranduba (Manilkara huberi), Sucupira da-terra-firme (Bowdickia nitida) and Mata-matá (Eschweilera sp.).
Resumo Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista das espécies de Musci coletadas em Aripuanã (MT), em dois períodos: outubro/1975 e 1º trimestre de 1977. No total foram identificadas 17 famílias, 26 gêneros e 44 espécies. As famílias representativas foram : Sematophyllaceae, Leucobryaceae, Calymperaceae, Thuidiaceae e Meteoriaceae. Todas as famílias coletadas são de clima tropical e já foram assinaladas para o Estado do Amazonas, com uma exceção, Hidropogonaceae, que até o momento não foi coletada no Amazonas As espécies mais comuns foram: Thuidium involvens e Sematophyllum subsimplex. Notas sobre substratos e habitats são fornecidos para cada espécie.
Summary A lista of species of Musci from Aripuanã, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, is given. The material listed was collected during the month of October (1975) and first trimester of 1977. 17 families, 26 genera and 44 species were collected. The families with the largest number of individuals were: Sematophyllaceae, Leucobryaceae, Calymperaceae. Thuidiaceae, Meteoriaceae and Plagiotheciaceae. All the families collected are typical of Tropical climate and they have all been previously recorded in the State of Amazonas except for the Hydropogonaceae, which is a new record for the State. The most common species were: Thuidium involvens and Sematophyllum subsimplex. Notes on habitats and substrates are given for each species.