RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as práticas de ressuscitação volêmica em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras e compará-las com as de outros países participantes do estudo Fluid-TRIPS. Métodos: Este foi um estudo observacional transversal, prospectivo e internacional, de uma amostra de conveniência de unidades de terapia intensiva de 27 países (inclusive o Brasil), com utilização da base de dados Fluid-TRIPS compilada em 2014. Descrevemos os padrões de ressuscitação volêmica utilizados no Brasil em comparação com os de outros países e identificamos os fatores associados com a escolha dos fluidos. Resultados: No dia do estudo, foram incluídos 3.214 pacientes do Brasil e 3.493 pacientes de outros países, dos quais, respectivamente, 16,1% e 26,8% (p < 0,001) receberam fluidos. A principal indicação para ressuscitação volêmica foi comprometimento da perfusão e/ou baixo débito cardíaco (Brasil 71,7% versus outros países 56,4%; p < 0,001). No Brasil, a percentagem de pacientes que receberam soluções cristaloides foi mais elevada (97,7% versus 76,8%; p < 0,001), e solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% foi o cristaloide mais comumente utilizado (62,5% versus 27,1%; p < 0,001). A análise multivariada sugeriu que os níveis de albumina se associaram com o uso tanto de cristaloides quanto de coloides, enquanto o tipo de prescritor dos fluidos se associou apenas com o uso de cristaloides. Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que cristaloides são usados mais frequentemente do que coloides para ressuscitação no Brasil, e essa discrepância, em termos de frequências, é mais elevada do que em outros países. A solução de cloreto de sódio 0,9% foi o cristaloide mais frequentemente prescrito. Os níveis de albumina sérica e o tipo de prescritor de fluidos foram os fatores associados com a escolha de cristaloides ou coloides para a prescrição de fluidos.
Abstract Objective: To describe fluid resuscitation practices in Brazilian intensive care units and to compare them with those of other countries participating in the Fluid-TRIPS. Methods: This was a prospective, international, cross-sectional, observational study in a convenience sample of intensive care units in 27 countries (including Brazil) using the Fluid-TRIPS database compiled in 2014. We described the patterns of fluid resuscitation use in Brazil compared with those in other countries and identified the factors associated with fluid choice. Results: On the study day, 3,214 patients in Brazil and 3,493 patients in other countries were included, of whom 16.1% and 26.8% (p < 0.001) received fluids, respectively. The main indication for fluid resuscitation was impaired perfusion and/or low cardiac output (Brazil: 71.7% versus other countries: 56.4%, p < 0.001). In Brazil, the percentage of patients receiving crystalloid solutions was higher (97.7% versus 76.8%, p < 0.001), and 0.9% sodium chloride was the most commonly used crystalloid (62.5% versus 27.1%, p < 0.001). The multivariable analysis suggested that the albumin levels were associated with the use of both crystalloids and colloids, whereas the type of fluid prescriber was associated with crystalloid use only. Conclusion: Our results suggest that crystalloids are more frequently used than colloids for fluid resuscitation in Brazil, and this discrepancy in frequencies is higher than that in other countries. Sodium chloride (0.9%) was the crystalloid most commonly prescribed. Serum albumin levels and the type of fluid prescriber were the factors associated with the choice of crystalloids or colloids for fluid resuscitation.
ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and leptin (LEP) can be candidate genes for association studies because they play vital roles in the metabolism process. Thus, this study aimed to identify variants in these genes associated with body traits in Santa Inês sheep. The following were recorded: body weight at 100 (BW100) and 240 days (BW240), average daily gain (ADG), withers (WH) and croup (CH) heights, body length (BL), thoracic (TG) and leg (LG) girths, thoracic (TW) and croup (CW) widths, body depth (BD), rib eye area (REA), fat thickness (FT), and carcass finishing score (CFS). Single-locus association analysis was performed with 11 variants in IGF1, 18 in LEP, and 16 in GH. Moreover, two haplotypes in IGF1 and one haplotype in LEP were evaluated in haplotype association analysis. The single-locus analysis revealed 23 suggestive additive effects (p < 0.05), but no additive effect was found at the Bonferroni threshold. Haplotype association analysis revealed 19 additive effects, of which ten were at the Bonferroni threshold (p < 0.0074). In IGF1 gene, haplotype replacements were associated with ADG 20.51(7.37), CH 4.09(1.21), WH 3.52(1.20), BL 3.94(1.19), TG 3.88(1.30), TW 1.13(0.36), and LG 3.40(1.08); while in the LEP gene the haplotype replacement was associated with BW100 1.83(0.51), BD −2.51(0.56), and CFS −0.24(0.06). Therefore, there are haplotypes in IGF1 and LEP genes associated with body traits in Santa Inês sheep, which can be useful in marker-assisted selection.
BACKGROUND Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported in different regions of Brazil from equine and human hosts but the virus had never been isolated in the country. OBJECTIVES We sought to identify the viral etiology of equine encephalitis in Espírito Santo state. METHODS We performed viral culture in C6/36 cells, molecular detection of WNV genome, histopathology and immunohistochemistry from horse cerebral tissue. We also carried out sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and molecular clock. FINDINGS Histopathologic analysis from horse cerebral tissue showed injury related to encephalitis and WNV infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The virus was detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from brain tissue and subsequently isolated in C6/36 cells. WNV full-length genome was sequenced showing the isolated strain belongs to lineage 1a. The molecular clock indicated that Brazilian WNV strain share the same common ancestor that were circulating in US during 2002-2005. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Here we report the first isolation of WNV in Brazil from a horse with neurologic disease, which was clustered into lineage 1a with others US WNV strains isolated in beginning of 2000’s decade.
RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a intra e interconfiabilidade, e a facilidade de medir a espessura muscular do quadríceps, usando ultrassom à beira do leito. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, observacional. A avaliação da espessura muscular do quadríceps foi realizada em dois pontos de referência e quantificada com ultrassom portátil em modo B em dois voluntários saudáveis. Para padronização das medidas e validação das coletas das imagens, foi realizada capacitação da equipe por meio de treinamentos com aulas teóricas e práticas, com carga horária de 6 horas. Resultados: Foram examinadas 112 imagens pelo treinador e comparadas com os alunos. A correlação de Person encontrou excelente relação entre o treinador e todos os alunos (R2 > 0,90). A melhor associação foi entre o treinador e os nutricionistas (R2: 0,99; p < 0,001), e a pior, entre o treinador e alunos médicos (R2: 0,92; p < 0,001). Quanto à comparação de Bland-Altman, a maior porcentagem de erro encontrada entre treinador e alunos foi de 5,12% (IC95% 3,64 - 12,37) e a menor, 1,01% (IC95% 0,72 - 2,58); o maior viés dos valores descrito foi -0,12 ± 0,19, e o menor, -0,01 ± 0,04. Conclusão: Os dados analisados mostraram boa correlação entre as medidas feitas pelo instrutor e alunos, mostrando que o ultrassom de músculo quadríceps é uma ferramenta viável e de fácil aplicabilidade.
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the intra- and inter-reliability and the ease of measuring the quadriceps muscle thickness using bedside ultrasound. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study. The assessment of quadriceps muscle thickness was performed at two reference points and was quantified using portable B-mode ultrasound in two healthy volunteers. For standardization of measurements and validation of image collections, the team was trained through theoretical and practical classes, with a 6-hour workload. Results: A total of 112 images were examined by the coach and compared with the trainees. Pearson's correlation analysis found an excellent relationship between the coach and all trainees (R2 > 0.90). The best association was between the coach and the dietitians (R2: 0.99; p < 0.001), and the worst association was between the coach and the medical trainees (R2: 0.92; p < 0.001). In the Bland-Altman comparison, the highest error rate found between coach and trainees was 5.12% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.64-12.37), and the lowest was 1.01% (95%CI 0.72 - 2.58); the highest bias of the values described was -0.12 ± 0.19, and the lowest was -0.01 ± 0.04. Conclusion: The data analyzed showed a good correlation between the measurements made by the coach and trainees, indicating that ultrasound of the quadriceps muscle is a viable and easily applicable tool.
Biodiesel purity expressed as fatty esters content is one of its most important quality parameters. Although several instrumental methods have been employed, gas chromatography with internal standard calibration has been the most used. Biodiesel is a very complex matrix, therefore finding a suitable internal standard (IS) is not straightforward. EN14103:2003 standard established methyl heptadecanoate (C17:0) as IS. Since this fatty ester is naturally present in some biodiesel feedstock as tallow, that standard was reviewed in 2011, and methyl nonadecanoate (C19:0) became the new IS. In turn, C19:0 produces a peak on the chromatogram that is difficult to resolve from methyl linoeate (C18:2) and metyl linolenate (C18:3) ones. In this paper, a GC-FID method for the determination of the esters content in methyl and ethyl biodiesel from canola and soy oils, using hexadecyl acetate as a new internal standard was validated. EN14103:2003 was used as reference method. Method selectivity, accuracy (t student parameter < 2.18 from both methods), repeatability (0.1 - 0.4%), intermediate precision (0.2 - 1.8%), and robustness (0.1 - 1.6%) were investigated and considered appropriate for the scope.
RESUMO O uso dos resíduos advindos de atividades agroindustriais, como a manipueira, vem sendo aplicado como forma de diminuir a poluição ambiental e aproveitamento de nutrientes. Assim, objetivou-se com o estudo, avaliar os componentes de produção e o rendimento de óleo do girassol (Helianthus annuus), híbrido Helio 250, fertilizado com manipueira. Conduziu-se experimento na Estação Experimental do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco, localizada em Vitória de Santo Antão - PE. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, constituídos de seis tratamentos (doses de manipueira: 0; 8,5; 17,0; 34,0; 68,0 e 136 m3 ha-1) e quatro repetições. Foram determinadas as variáveis rendimento de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea das plantas; rendimento de matéria fresca e seca do capítulo; diâmetro de capítulo, rendimento de aquênios, rendimento e teor de óleo do girassol. O uso da manipueira como fonte de fertilizante proporcionou aumento das variáveis morfológicas e de produção avaliadas, exceto o teor de óleo das sementes, que diminuiu para doses de manipueira acima de 25 m3 ha-1.
ABSTRACT Agroindustrial residues, such as cassava wastewater, have been used as soil fertilizers, reducing environmental pollution and recovering nutrients. The objective of this work was to evaluate production and morphological components and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), hybrid Helio-250, fertilized with cassava wastewater. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronomico de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with six cassava wastewater rates (0, 8.5, 17.0, 34.0, 68.0 and 136 m3 ha-1) and four replications. The variables evaluated were shoot fresh and dry weight, capitulum fresh and dry weight, capitulum diameter, seed yield, oil yield and seed oil content. The use cassava wastewater as soil fertilizer improved the production and morphological variables evaluated, except the seed oil content, which decreased with application of cassava wastewater rates above 25 m3 ha-1.
RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar a regeneração natural pós-fogo em uma área de campo sujo. Foram selecionados três ambientes; I e II, com ocorrência de fogo, e III, sem ocorrência. Em cada local foi instalado um transecto com 20 parcelas de 5 × 5 m (25 m2). Foram mensurados o diâmetro ao nível do solo (DNS), altura total e rebrota de todos os indivíduos com altura ≥ 0,10 m e DNS ≤ 5,0 cm. Nos ambientes I e II foram amostrados 436 e 387 indivíduos e 29 e 24 espécies, respectivamente. Já no ambiente III foram amostrados 741 indivíduos e 29 espécies. Houve diferença significativa no número de perfilhos, número de indivíduos e na área basal. Nos ambientes I e II, 72% e 88%, respectivamente, apresentaram indícios de rebrotamento. O incêndio modificou a estrutura da vegetação e a rebrota foi a principal estratégia utilizada pelas espécies nos locais com ocorrência de incêndio.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the natural post-fire regeneration in dry grassland. We selected three sites: I and II, with occurrence of fire and III with no occurrence. Each site received one transect with 20 plots of 5 × 5m (25m 2). Diameter at ground level (DNS), total height and regrowth of all individuals with height ≥ 0.10 m and DNS ≤ 5.0 cm were measured. Sites I and II, respectively, had 436 and 387 sampled individuals, and 29 and 24 species. Site III had 741 individuals and 29 species sampled. There was a significant difference in the number of tiller, individuals and basal area. In sites I and II, 72% and 88%, respectively, showed signs of regrowth. The fire changed the structure of vegetation, and regrowth was the main strategy used by species in sites with fire occurrence.
Abstract Introduction: The result of surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation remains controversial, although prospective and randomized studies have shown significant differences in the return to sinus rhythm in patients treated with ablation versus control group. Surgery of the Labyrinth, proposed by Cox and colleagues, is complex and increases the morbidity rate. Therefore, studies are needed to confirm the impact on clinical outcomes and quality of life of these patients. Objective: To analyze the results obtained in the treatment of atrial fibrillation by surgical approach, by Gomes procedure, for mitral valve surgery in patients with rheumatic heart disease associated with chronic atrial fibrillation. Methods: We studied 20 patients with mitral valve dysfunction of rheumatic etiology, evolving with chronic atrial fibrillation, submitted to surgical treatment of valvular dysfunction and atrial fibrillation by Gomes procedure. Results: The mean duration of infusion ranged from 65.8±11.22 and aortic clamping of 40.8±7.87 minutes. Of 20 patients operated, 19 (95%) patients were discharged with normal atrial heart rhythm. One (5%) patient required permanent endocardial pacing. In the postoperative follow-up of six months, 18 (90%) patients continued with regular atrial rhythm, one (5%) patient returned to atrial fibrillation and one (5%) patient continued to require endocardial pacemaker to maintain regular rhythm. Conclusion: Gomes procedure associated with surgical correction of mitral dysfunction simplified the surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and persistent atrial fibrillation. The results showed that it is a safe and effective procedure.
Resumo Fundamento: O implante de válvula aórtica por cateter tornou-se uma opção para pacientes com doença valvar aórtica de elevado risco cirúrgico. Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados dos seguimentos intra-hospitalar e de até 1 ano do implante de válvula aórtica por cateter. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva de casos de implante de válvula aórtica por cateter entre julho de 2009 e fevereiro de 2015. Análise de variáveis clínicas e do procedimento, correlacionando com mortalidade intra-hospitalar e de 1 ano. Resultados: Foram submetidos ao implante 136 pacientes, com média de idade de 83 (80-87) anos, sendo 49% mulheres, 131 (96,3%) deles com estenose aórtica, um (0,7%) com insuficiência aórtica e quatro (2,9%) com disfunção de prótese. A classe funcional da NYHA foi III ou IV em 129 (94,8%) casos. A área valvar inicial foi 0,67 ± 0,17 cm2 e o gradiente ventrículo esquerdo-aorta médio de 47,3 ± 18,2 mmHg, com STS de 9,3% (4,8%-22,3%). As próteses implantadas eram autoexpansíveis em 97% dos casos. A mortalidade peroperatória em 1,5% dos casos; em 30 dias em 5,9%; intra-hospitalar em 8,1%; e após 1 ano em 15,5% dos casos. A hemotransfusão (risco relativo de 54; p = 0,0003) e a hipertensão arterial pulmonar (risco relativo de 5,3; p = 0,036) foram preditoras de mortalidade hospitalar; e a proteína C-reativa pico (risco relativo de 1,8; p = 0,013) e a hemotransfusão (risco relativo de 8,3; p = 0,0009) de mortalidade em 1 ano. Aos 30 dias, 97% dos pacientes estavam em classe NYHA I/II e, em 1 ano, o número chegou a 96%. Conclusão: O implante de válvula aórtica por cateter foi realizado com alto índice de sucesso e baixa mortalidade. A hemotransfusão associou-se com maior mortalidade hospitalar e de 1 ano. Proteína C-reativa pico se associou com a mortalidade de 1 ano.
Abstract Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an option for high-surgical-risk patients with aortic valve disease. Objective: To evaluate the in-hospital and one-year follow-up outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods: Prospective cohort study of transcatheter aortic valve implantation cases from July 2009 to February 2015. Analysis of clinical and procedural variables, correlating them with in-hospital and one-year mortality. Results: A total of 136 patients with a mean age of 83 years (80-87) underwent heart valve implantation; of these, 49% were women, 131 (96.3%) had aortic stenosis, one (0.7%) had aortic regurgitation and four (2.9%) had prosthetic valve dysfunction. NYHA functional class was III or IV in 129 cases (94.8%). The baseline orifice area was 0.67 ± 0.17 cm2 and the mean left ventricular-aortic pressure gradient was 47.3±18.2 mmHg, with an STS score of 9.3% (4.8%-22.3%). The prostheses implanted were self-expanding in 97% of cases. Perioperative mortality was 1.5%; 30-day mortality, 5.9%; in-hospital mortality, 8.1%; and one-year mortality, 15.5%. Blood transfusion (relative risk of 54; p = 0.0003) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (relative risk of 5.3; p = 0.036) were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Peak C-reactive protein (relative risk of 1.8; p = 0.013) and blood transfusion (relative risk of 8.3; p = 0.0009) were predictive of 1-year mortality. At 30 days, 97% of patients were in NYHA functional class I/II; at one year, this figure reached 96%. Conclusion: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a high success rate and low mortality. Blood transfusion was associated with higher in-hospital and one-year mortality. Peak C-reactive protein was associated with one-year mortality.
ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in countries such as Brazil.
The adhesion of biofilm on dental prostheses is a prerequisite for the occurrence of oral diseases. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial activity and the mechanical properties of an acrylic resin embedded with nanostructured silver vanadate (β-AgVO3). Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of β-AgVO3 was studied in relation to the species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The halo zone of inhibition method was performed in triplicate to determine the inhibitory effect of the modified self-curing acrylic resin Dencor Lay - Clássico®. The surface hardness and compressive strength were examined. The specimens were prepared according to the percentage of β-AgVO3 (0%-control, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%), with a sample size of 9x2 mm for surface hardness and antimicrobial activity tests, and 8x4 mm for the compression test. The values of the microbiologic analysis were compared and evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05); the mechanical analysis used the Shapiro-Wilk's tests, Levene's test, ANOVA (one-way), and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results: The addition of 10% β-AgVO3 promoted antimicrobial activity against all strains. The antimicrobial effect was observed at a minimum concentration of 1% for P. aeruginosa, 2.5% for S. aureus, 5% for C. albicans, and 10% for S. mutans. Surface hardness and compressive strength increased significantly with the addition of 0.5% β-AgVO3 (p<0.05). Higher rates of the nanomaterial did not alter the mechanical properties of the resin in comparison with the control group (p>0.05). Conclusions: The incorporation of β-AgVO3 has the potential to promote antimicrobial activity in the acrylic resin. At reduced rates, it improves the mechanical properties, and, at higher rates, it does not promote changes in the control.
Objetivou-se verificar como os afloramentos rochosos influenciam os padrões ecológicos das espécies lenhosas no cerrado stricto sensu e se existem espécies indicadoras de ambientes. Foram amostradas dez parcelas e registrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com DAS ≥ 5 cm e também as porcentagens de coberturas de afloramentos rochosos. Para avaliar as relações florísticas, foi empregada uma Análise de Correspondência Retificada (DCA), e utilizou-se a Análise de Espécies Indicadoras (ISA), na determinação das preferências das espécies pelos ambientes. Foram calculados os parâmetros fitossociológicos e realizado um teste t de Student para amostras independentes com algumas variáveis estruturais. A DCA confirmou a existência de dois ambientes e mostrou que a presença dos afloramentos rochosos modifica a composição florística entre eles. A ISA mostrou que existem espécies indicadoras de ambientes. A presença dos afloramentos rochosos alterou o conjunto de espécies de maior Valor de Importância (VI) em cada ambiente, porém não houve diferença significativa entre os parâmetros estruturais avaliados em cada ambiente.
The aim of this study was to verify the presence of environmental indicator species and the influence of rocky outcrops on the ecological patterns of woody plant species in a Cerrado stricto sensu. Ten plots were sampled where information regarding rocky outcrops and all live individuals with DAG ≥ 5 cm were registered. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was performed to assess floristic relations, while Indicator Species Analysis (ISA) was used to determine the environmental preferences of species. Phytosociological parameters were calculated, and the Student's t test was conducted for independent samples with some structural variables. The DAG of live individuals confirmed the existence of two environments and showed that the presence of rocky outcrops changes the floristic composition between them. The ISA verified the presence of environmental indicator species. The presence of rocky outcrops changed the group of species presenting higher Importance Value (VI) in each environment; however, no significant differences were found between the structural parameters assessed in each environment.
This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raspberries exposed to different radiation doses. The fruits were harvested in the city of Campestre, MG, packed in polyethylene bags, and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), where they were separated into 4 lots. Irradiation was performed at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology in Belo Horizonte, MG. The doses used were 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, the fruits were transported back to UFLA and stored at 1 ºC and 95% relative humidity (RH) for 12 days. The physicochemical analyses for mass loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total soluble sugars, total soluble pectin, firmness, vitamin C content, total antioxidant activity, and total phenolic, and the microbiological assays (coliform at 35 and 45 ºC, psychrotrophic and filamentous fungi and yeasts) were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage. Lower loss of mass and filamentous fungi and yeast count were observed in the irradiated fruits, and 2 kGy was determined as the most effective dose for microbial control, but this irradiation dose also resulted in increased loss of fruit firmness.