OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, management, and prognosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. METHOD: 24 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis with accurate pathological diagnosis were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: 15 male patients and nine female patients were diagnosed at the first affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 1999 to November 2011. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44.2 ± 11.3 years (range: 24 to 65 years). Among these patients, 13 had other comorbidities. 15 were symptomatic and the other nine were asymptomatic. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, chest tightness, expectoration, and fever. None had concurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The most frequent radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography (CT) scans were solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, and masses or consolidations, and most lesions were located in the lower lobes. All patients had biopsies for the accurate diagnosis. Among the 24 patients, nine patients underwent surgical resections (eight had pneumonectomy via thoracotomy and one had a pneumonectomy via thoracoscopy). Five of the patients who underwent surgery also received antifungal drug therapy (fluconazole) for one to three months after the surgery. The other 15 only received antifungal drug therapy (fluconazole or voriconazole) for three to six months (five patients are still on therapy). The follow-up observation of 19 patients who had already finished their treatments lasted from two to 11 years, and there was no relapse, dissemination, or death in any of these patients. CONCLUSION: Non-AIDS patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis have a good prognosis with appropriate management.
INTRODUCTION: Pleuropulmonary changes are common following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery performed with a saphenous vein graft, with or without an internal mammary artery. The presence of atelectasis or pleural effusions reflects the thoracic trauma. PURPOSE: To define the postoperative incidence of changes in the lung and in the pleural space and to evaluate the influence of the trauma. METHODS: Thirty patients underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (8 saphenous vein grafts and 22 saphenous vein grafts and internal mammary artery grafts with pleurotomy). Chest tubes in the left pleural space were used in all internal mammary artery patients. On the second (day 2) and seventh (day 7) postoperative day, patients underwent a computed tomography, and pleural effusions were rated as follows: grade 0 = no fluid to grade 4 = fluid in more than 75% of the hemithorax. Atelectasis was rated as follows: laminar = 1, segmental = 3, and lobar = 10 points. RESULTS: All patients had pleural effusion or atelectasis. Between day 2 and day 7, the number of patients with effusions or atelectasis on the right side decreased (P < 0.05). The incidence of effusions on day 2 in the saphenous vein graft group (87.5%) was higher (P < 0.05) than in the internal mammary artery group (52.3%). The incidence of atelectasis in the lower right lobe decreased (P < 0.05) from 86.7% (day 2) to 26.7% (day 7). The degree of atelectasis in both sides did not differ on day 2 (P = 0.42) but did on day 7 (P < 0.0001). There was a decrease in the atelectasis from day 2 to day 7 on the right side (P < 0.001), but not on the left (P = 0.21). On day 2 there was a relationship between atelectasis and effusion on the right (P = 0.04), but not on the left (P = 0.113). CONCLUSION: The present series demonstrates that there is a high incidence of both minimal pleural effusion and atelectasis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, which drops on the right side from day 2 to day 7 post surgery. Factors that contribute to the persistence of changes on the left side include the thoracic trauma and the presence of chest tubes and pericardial effusion.
INTRODUÇÃO: O comprometimento pleuro-pulmonar é freqüente após cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio independente do uso de veia safena ou de artéria mamária interna. A presença de atelectasias e derrame pleural tem sido atribuída ao trauma torácico. OBJETIVOS: Definir a incidência do comprometimento pleuro-pulmonar observado através de tomografia computadorizada, analisando a influência do trauma no desenvolvimento destas complicações. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes foram submetidos a cirurgia eletiva de revascularização do miocárdio (8 safena e 22 também mamária com pleurotomia). Foi drenada a cavidade pleural esquerda de todos os pacientes do grupo mamária. Realizada Tomografia Computadorizada do tórax no 2º e 7º dias pós-op, avaliando-se o derrame pleural (0: sem líquido e 4: derrame em mais de 75% do hemitórax) e atelectasias (laminar: 1, segmentar: 3 e lobar: 10 pontos). RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram derrame pleural ou atelectasia. Entre o 2º e o 7º dia, o número de pacientes com derrame ou com atelectasia, no lado direito, diminuiu (p < 0.05). A prevalência de derrames, no 2º dia, no grupo safena, (87.5%) foi maior (p < 0.05) do que no grupo mamária (52.3%). A prevalência de atelectasias no lobo inferior direito diminuiu (p < 0.05) de 86.7% (2º dia) para 26.7% (7º dia). O grau de atelectasias, em ambos os lados, não diferiu no dia 2 (p = 0,42) mas sim no dia 7 (p < 0.0001). Houve diminuição das atelectasias do dia 2 para o 7, à direita (p < 0.001), mas não à esquerda (p = 0.21). Houve correlação (dia 2) entre as atelectasias e os derrames à direita (p = 0.04), mas não à esquerda (p = 0.113). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo evidencia alta prevalência de derrame pleural e atelectasias após cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, que se reduz à direita no 7º dia de pós-operatório. Os fatores envolvidos na persis-tência das alterações à esquerda incluem o maior trauma torácico, ressaltando-se a drenagem e a presença de derrame pericárdico.