OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical complications related to colonoscopy in inpatients with multiple diseases. Among the known complications, acute kidney injury was the primary focus. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study of 97 inpatients. Data relating to age; gender; comorbidities; current medication; blood tests (renal function, blood glucose and LDL cholesterol levels); length of hospital stay; indication, results, and complications of colonoscopies; and time to the development of kidney injury were collected between June 2011 to February 2012. RESULTS: A total of 108 colonoscopies (9 screening and 88 diagnostic) were conducted in 97 patients. Renal injury occurred in 41.2% of the patients. The univariate analysis revealed that kidney injury was related to the use of diuretics, statins, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; however, the multivariate analysis showed that only the use of diuretics was associated with kidney injury. The occurrence of kidney injury and the time to its development were independent of the previous glomerular filtration rate as calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diuretics was the only independent variable associated with the development of kidney injury in inpatients with multiple comorbidities who underwent colonoscopy. The occurrence of kidney injury and the time to its development were independent of previous CKD-EPI-based assessments of renal function. These results highlight the increased risk of colonoscopy in such patients, and its indication should be balanced strictly and perhaps avoided as a screening test.
CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO:Este trabalho foi motivado pelo recente aumento excessivo de solicitações de dosagem de cálcio no sangue, assim como de exames laboratoriais em geral, no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP). Seu objetivo foi sugerir regras para a determinação de cálcio total e iônico nas nossas unidades de terapia intensiva, pronto-socorro, enfermarias e ambulatórios e contribuir para a melhoria da qualidade da assistência médica, com utilização mais adequada dos recursos humanos e financeiros.TIPO DO ESTUDO E LOCAL:Análise crítica de dados clínicos, laboratoriais e da literatura médica pertinente, realizada pelo grupo de estudos para o uso racional do laboratório clínico, vinculado à Divisão de Laboratório Central do HCFMUSP.MÉTODOS:O grupo de estudos reviu publicações científicas, estatísticas e dados clínico-laboratoriais relativos às solicitações de cálcio total e iônico nos ambientes das unidades de terapia intensiva, prontos-socorros, enfermarias e ambulatórios.RESULTADOS:A partir dessa análise crítica, foram construídos fluxogramas de decisão clínica que visam orientar a requisição desses testes.CONCLUSÕES:A utilização dos fluxogramas propostos pode ajudar a limitar a solicitação inadequada das dosagens de cálcio total e iônico, com consequente redução do número de exames, de riscos para os pacientes e de custos desnecessários.
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:This study was motivated by the recent excessive increase in requests for blood calcium determinations and laboratory tests in general, in the Hospital das Clínicas complex of Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP). Its aim was to suggest rules for the determination of total and ionized calcium in our intensive care units, emergency department, wards and outpatient services, thus contributing towards improving the quality of medical care and achieving more appropriate use of human and financial resources.DESIGN AND SETTING:Critical analysis on clinical and laboratory data and the pertinent scientific literature, conducted by the study group for rational clinical laboratory use, which is part of the Central Laboratory Division, HCFMUSP.METHODS:The study group reviewed scientific publications, statistics and clinical and laboratory data concerning requests for total and ionized calcium determinations in the settings of intensive care units, emergency department, wards and outpatient services.RESULTS:From this critical analysis, clinical decision flow diagrams aimed at providing guidance for ordering these tests were constructed.CONCLUSIONS:Use of the proposed flow diagrams may help to limit the numbers of inappropriate requests for ionized and total calcium determinations, with consequent reductions in the number of tests, risks to patients and unnecessary costs.
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies have been conducted to evaluate the adequacy of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. However, these studies often evaluate prophylaxis on the data collection day, without analysing the prophylactic dose or duration and without reference to inappropriate use in patients without risk. A prospective, observational study was performed to assess the adequacy of prophylaxis in a general medicine ward of a university hospital. METHOD: In the analysis, the use of the proper prophylactic dose at the correct time, the use in patients with contraindications, and the misuse in patients without risk of venous thromboembolism were considered. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients were evaluated. Of these patients, 104 (42.4%) were considered to be at risk, and 82.7% either received adequate prophylaxis (i.e., the correct dose at the right time) or did not receive prophylaxis because it was contraindicated. Among the 141 patients who were not at risk, 81 (57.4%) incorrectly received prophylaxis, the majority (61/81) of whom presented with risk factors but did not demonstrate reduced mobility. Among the entire group, only 59.6% of patients were properly treated. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of prophylaxis adequacy should consider not only whether the correct dose is administered at the correct time but also whether it is used in patients with contraindications and whether it is inappropriately administered to patients who are not at risk.
O número de dosagens do nível sérico de vitamina D tem apresentado crescimento muito expressivo nos últimos anos em todo o mundo. No Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo houve aumento de cerca de 700% em quatro anos nas solicitações desse hormônio. No entanto, há controvérsias na literatura sobre a real utilidade de sua dosagem e/ou suplementação, exceto em situações diretamente relacionadas ao metabolismo ósseo. No presente trabalho são revistos o metabolismo, as fontes e as ações da vitamina D no organismo. Estudos observacionais, ensaios clínicos, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises, cujo foco é a relação entre vitamina D e doenças ou condições clínicas, como câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes e quedas, foram pesquisados na literatura, analisados e discutidos. Os resultados estão apresentados em forma de perguntas e respostas, tabelas e figura. Discute-se o papel da vitamina D em todas essas situações, e salientam-se os pontos controvertidos.
Recent years have witnessed a substantial increase in the number of seric determinations of vitamin D, in aworldwide basis. At Hospital das Clínicas of Faculdade de Medicina of Universidade de São Paulo that increase reached 700% over the last four years. Nevertheless there are many controversies on the literature about the role of vitamin D in conditions unrelated to themusculoskeletal system. In this study the metabolism, sources and actions of vitamin D on the body are reviewed. Observational studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews and metanalysis which focused on the relationship between the vitamin and conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and falls were searched on the literature, analyzed and discussed. Results are presented as quiz and answer, tables and a figure. The role of vitamin D on the above-mentioned conditions is discussed, and the controversial issues stressed.
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is an underdiagnosed major cause of death for hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to identify the conditions associated with fatal pulmonary embolism in this population. METHODS: A total of 13,074 autopsy records were evaluated in a case-control study. Patients were matched by age, sex, and year of death, and factors potentially associated with fatal pulmonary embolism were analyzed using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was considered fatal in 328 (2.5%) patients. In the multivariate analysis, conditions that were more common in patients who died of pulmonary embolism were atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery. Some conditions were negatively associated with fatal pulmonary embolism, including hemorrhagic stroke, aortic aneurism, cirrhosis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and pneumonia. In the control group, patients with hemorrhagic stroke and aortic aneurism had short hospital stays (8.5 and 8.8 days, respectively), and the hemorrhage itself was the main cause of death in most of them (90.6% and 68.4%, respectively), which may have prevented the development of pulmonary embolism. Cirrhotic patients in the control group also had short hospital stays (7 days), and 50% died from bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this large autopsy study, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery were diagnoses associated with fatal pulmonary embolism.
A proteína C reativa (PCR) é uma das proteínas de fase aguda cuja solicitação tem crescido de forma exponencial em vários países, incluindo o Brasil. Neste estudo, a utilidade da PCR em diversas situações clínicas foi revisada por um grupo de médicos composto por especialistas em Medicina Interna, Emergências Médicas, Terapia Intensiva, Rastreamento e Medicina Laboratorial com o objetivo de analisar a literatura pertinente e propor diretrizes para o uso mais racional desse exame laboratorial. O resultado foi a criação de fluxogramas orientadores da solicitação de PCR adaptados a quatro ambientes assistenciais diferentes, sendo eles unidades de terapia intensiva, pronto-socorro, enfermarias e ambulatórios. Esses fluxogramas e uma discussão mais detalhada sobre as diversas indicações clínicas do exame são apresentados neste estudo.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein whose requests have been growing exponentially in several countries, including Brazil. In this study, the use of CRP in several clinical situations was reviewed by a group of physicians comprised by specialists in internal medicine, medical emergencies, intensive care, screening, and laboratory medicine, aiming to analyze the applicable literature and to propose guidelines for a more rational use of this laboratory test. The result was the creation of flowcharts guiding CRP request, adjusted to four different healthcare environments, namely, intensive care units, emergency room, wards, and outpatient clinics. These flowcharts, as well as a more detailed discussion on several clinical recommendations for the test, are presented in this study.