Abstract: This study aimed to describe the morphometric relationship of root canal orifices on the pulp floor in the presence/absence of mesiobuccal second canal (MB2) in the maxillary first molars and other aspects of its internal anatomy. Sixty-two maxillary first molars were scanned by micro-CT. The presence of the MB2 canal was verified. The distance between the center points of the MB1, MB2, distobuccal (DB), and palatal (P) canal orifices on the pulp floor were measured (MB1-MB2, MB1-DB, MB2-DB, MB1-P, and DB-P). The MB1-P to DB-P ratio was calculated. The distances between the anatomic apex and the MB1 and MB2 apical foramina were measured. The length of the band-shaped isthmus was also measured. Student's t-test was applied to verify the association between the presence of an MB2 canal, the interorifice distances, and the ratio of the MB1-P to DB-P distance (α = 5%). The MB2 canal was present in 43 roots (69.35%). Statistics showed significant differences when MB2 was present for the largest MB1-P distance (p < 0.05) and higher values for the MB1-P to DB-P ratio (p < 0.05). A band-shaped isthmus was detected in 25.8% of MB roots. The mean distance from the apical foramen to the isthmus floor ranged from 1.74 for MB1 canals to 1.42 for MB2 canals. Canal orifice distances on the pulp floor may predict the presence of MB2 canals. There was a high incidence of isthmus, accessory canals, and apical delta in the critical apical zone in MB roots of maxillary first molars.
Abstract Objectives This study assessed the incidence and variability features of root canals system (RCS) and their ramifications according to Pucci & Reig (PR) (1944) and the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) (2017) by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Methodology 500 representative extracted human teeth of each tooth group (n=50) (maxillary/mandibular central and lateral incisors, canines, first and second premolars and molars) were scanned by μCT with a resolution of 26.70 μm. The reconstructed cross-sections images and the visualization of the continuous slices in the transversal axis were performed using DataViewer software. RCS were classified according to Pucci & Reig (main canal, collateral canal, lateral canal, secondary canal, accessory canal, intercanal, recurrent canal) and AAE (main canal, accessory canal, lateral canal). The apical deltas were assessed for both classifications. The prevalence of apical deltas was evaluated using the Chi-squared test (p<0.05). Results According to PR, a higher incidence of lateral canals was observed in maxillary canines (10%), central incisors (8%) and first premolars (6%). Using AAE, the highest incidence of lateral canals was observed in the mandibular first premolars (85%), first and second molars (84%), lateral incisors (67%), canines (59%), and in maxillary first premolars (52%). Regarding accessory canals, the PR showed a frequency in 2% of the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular first premolars and 3% of mandibular first and second molars. On the other hand, the AAE showed the highest incidence of accessory canals in 86% of the maxillary first premolars, 71% in mandibular lateral incisors, 69% in mandibular first premolars, 65% in mandibular canines, and 56% in maxillary canines. The PR showed the lowest incidence of apical deltas for all dental groups when compared with AAE (p=0.004). Interestingly, distal canals in maxillary molars showed a significant discrepancy between classifications (p=0.027). Conclusions μCT enabled accurately describing the RC system and related ramifications, adding to the PR and AAE classifications, with some discrepancies reported for maxillary molars. Clinical Relevance This μCT study enabled a thorough description of the variability among root canals and their ramifications, including clinically relevant details on the presence and location of lateral canals and accessories in all human tooth groups, beyond the currently existing classification systems.
Abstract: This literature review has critically analyzed the published research related to the biomechanical preparation of root canals with three-dimensional analysis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In December 2017, six databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Science Direct) were accessed using keywords to find articles including the use of the micro-CT analysis in biomechanical root canal preparation. There were 60 full articles that were selected, which were screened and read by two authors. The research that was reviewed and analyzed included root canal anatomy and sample selection, changes in canal shape and untouched canal areas, canal transportation and centering ability, and kinematics (motion). Of the studies selected, 49.18% discussed anatomical characteristics, with 54.1% of these studies describing mesial roots of mandibular molars with moderate curvature. Only 35% used a stratified distribution based on root canal system morphology and quantitative data obtained by micro-CT. The analysis of canal transportation and centering ability showed that transport values in the apical third exceeded the critical limit of 0.3 mm in mesial roots of mandibular molars with moderate curvature, especially in the groups in which a reciprocating system was used. In relation to kinematics, 91.70% of the reviewed studies evaluated continuous rotating instruments, followed by reciprocating rotation (38.33%), vibratory (15%), and the adaptive kinematics, which was in only 8.33%. The reciprocating kinematics was associated with higher canal decentralization and transportation indexes, as well as a greater capacity for dentin removal and debris accumulation. This literature review showed that the anatomy, the type of design and kinematics of instruments, and the experimental design are factors that directly influence the quality of biomechanical preparation of root canals analyzed in a qualitative and quantitative manner by micro-CT.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentinal thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm3, 58.51 mm2, and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentinal thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a morfologia de 70 pré-molares inferiores com depressões radiculares (DR) usando a microtomografia. Os dentes foram escaneados e avaliados quanto à morfologia das raízes e canais radiculares, bem como o comprimento, profundidade, frequência e localização das DR. O volume, a área de superfície e o Structure Model Index (SMI) dos canais foram mensurados no comprimento total da raiz. Parâmetros bidimensionais e orifícios do canal foram avaliados a 1, 2 e 3 mm do forame apical. O número de canais acessórios, a espessura dentinária e a aparência transversal do canal em diferentes níveis de raiz também foram registrados. A expressão de sulcos profundos foi observada em 21,42% da amostra. Os comprimentos médios de raiz e DR foram de 13,43 mm e 8,5 mm, respectivamente, enquanto a profundidade das DR variou de 0,75 a 1,13 mm. O volume médio do canal, a área superficial e o SMI foram de 10,78 mm3, 58,51 mm2 e 2,84, respectivamente. O delta apical estava presente em 4,35% da amostra e os canais acessórios foram observados principalmente nos terços médio e apical. Os parâmetros bidimensionais indicaram canais radiculares com secção oval e alta frequência de divisões canal principal (87,15%). A configuração Tipo V do canal radicular foi a mais prevalente (58,57%). A presença de canais em forma de C foi observada em 13 pré-molares (18,57%), enquanto a espessura dentinária variou de 1,0 a 1,31 mm. Os sulcos radiculares nos primeiros pré-molares inferiores foram associados à ocorrência de várias complexidades anatômicas, incluindo canais em forma de C e múltiplas divisões do canal principal.
Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate canal preparation in primary molars with hand files, ProTaper Next and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by 2D and 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Canals of 24 primary molars were prepared with hand files (HF), ProTaper Next (PTN) and SAF (n=8/group). The teeth were scanned before and after root canal preparation and the pre- and postoperative micro-CT images were reconstructed. Changes in 2D (area, perimeter, roundness, minor and major diameter) and 3D [volume, surface area, structure model index (SMI)] morphological parameters, as well as canal transportation and lateral perforations were evaluated (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA; a=0.05). SAF presented smaller changes in minor diameter, volume and surface area compared with HF and PTN (p<0.05). PTN presented more circular canals after preparation. 3D analysis revealed greater transportation in HF. PTN and SAF presented more centered canal preparation, especially in curved areas. SAF and HF presented, respectively, the lowest (0.05±0.02 and 0.07±0.04) and highest (0.14±0.11 and 0.29±0.17) apical transportation. There were fewer lateral perforations in SAF (4.2%) and PTN (7.7%) than in HF (47.8%) (p<0.05). In primary molars, mechanical preparation showed better shaping ability than hand files, promoting more centered preparations and lower occurrence of lateral perforations and canal transportation. Clinical Relevance: Manual instrumentation is still reported as the main choice in the primary teeth preparation; however, studies have shown limitations in its use. The morphological characteristics of primary teeth and the limited knowledge of shaping procedures in these teeth using mechanical preparation become a challenge for clinical practice and might impair the predictability of endodontic treatment.
Resumo Este estudo avaliou o preparo do canal radicular em molares decíduos com sistema manual e mecanizado [ProTaper Next e Self-Adjusting File (SAF)], por meio de parâmetros morfológicos bi (2D) e tridimensionais (3D) em microtomografia computadorizada (micro-CT). Canais radiculares de 24 molares decíduos foram preparados com limas manuais (M), ProTaper Next (PTN) e SAF (n=8/grupo). Os dentes foram escaneados antes e após o preparo do canal radicular e as imagens de micro-CT pré e pós-operatória foram reconstruídas. As mudanças nos parâmetros morfológicos 2D (área, perímetro, circularidade, menor e maior diâmetro) e 3D [volume, área de superfície, índice de estrutura do modelo (SMI)], bem como o transporte do canal radicular e a presença de perfurações laterais foram avaliadas (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA; a=0.05). SAF apresentou menores mudanças no diâmetro menor, volume e área de superfície quando comparado com M e PTN (p<0.05). PTN mostrou canais mais circulares após o preparo. A análise 3D revelou maior transporte para o grupo M. PTN e SAF mostraram maior centralização do preparo do canal radicular, especialmente em áreas de curvatura. SAF e M apresentaram, respectivamente, o menor (0,05±0,02 e 0,07±0,04) e o maior (0,14±0,11 e 0,29±0,17) transporte apical. Foi possível observar menor porcentagem de perfurações laterais para os grupos SAF (4,2%) e PTN (7,7%) comparados ao grupo M (47,8%) (p<0.05). Conclui-se que o preparo mecanizado dos canais radiculares em molares decíduos, apresentou melhor capacidade de modelagem do que as limas manuais, promovendo preparos mais centralizados e menor ocorrência de perfurações laterais e transporte do canal.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of vibration therapy on the bone callus of fractured femurs and the bone quality of intact femurs in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Fifty-six rats aged seven weeks were divided into four groups: control with femoral fracture (CON, n=14), ovariectomized with femoral fracture (OVX, n=14), control with femoral fracture plus vibration therapy (CON+VT, n=14), and ovariectomized with femoral fracture plus vibration therapy (OVX+VT, n=14). Three months after ovariectomy or sham surgery, a complete fracture was produced at the femoral mid-diaphysis and stabilized with a 1-mm-diameter intramedullary Kirschner wire. X-rays confirmed the fracture alignment and fixation. Three days later, the VT groups underwent vibration therapy (1 mm, 60 Hz for 20 minutes, three times per week for 14 or 28 days). The bone and callus quality were assessed by densitometry, three-dimensional microstructure, and mechanical test. RESULTS : Ovariectomized rats exhibited a substantial loss of bone mass and severe impairment in bone microarchitecture, both in the non-fractured femur and the bone callus. Whole-body vibration therapy exerted an important role in ameliorating the bone and fracture callus parameters in the osteoporotic bone. CONCLUSION: Vibration therapy improved bone quality and the quality of the fracture bone callus in ovariectomized rats.
This study used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the fit of the master gutta-percha cone at time of cone fit, gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and the filling material volume in relation to the canal at the apical limit of the working length. Root canals of 20 maxillary central incisors were prepared with rotary instruments and distributed into two groups (n=10). The gutta-percha cone tip was either plasticized (apical thermal impression technique - ATI) or not (conventional technique - CT), and its apical fit was checked. The apical 1 mm of working length was examined with a micro-CT, canals were filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and new micro-CT scans were obtained. In CT, gutta-percha filled 35.83 ± 15.05% of the canal at cone selection and 38.72 ± 11.64% after filling. In ATI, these values were 23.14 ± 7.74% and 26.98 ± 20.40%, respectively. Gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and filling material volume in relation to the canal were, respectively, 61.28 ± 11.64% and 87.76 ± 9.98% for CT, and 73.00 ± 20.41% and 89.96 ± 9.08% for ATI. No significant difference was found between cone selection and after canal filling, for either CT (p=0.593) or ATI (p=0.4975). The techniques did not differ significantly with respect to gutta-percha volume in the filling material (p=0.132) and filling material volume in relation to the canal (p=0.612). An ideal fit of the master gutta-percha cone at working length was not achieved regardless of the cone selection technique, and the material-filled area was similar for both techniques.
Este estudo utilizou microtomografia computadorizada (micro-CT) para avaliar a adaptação do cone de guta-percha no momento da sua seleção, o volume de guta-percha no material obturador, e o volume do material obturador em relação ao canal no limite apical do comprimento de trabalho. Canais radiculares de 20 incisivos centrais superiores foram preparados com instrumentos rotatórios e distribuídos em dois grupos (n=10). A ponta do cone de guta-percha foi plastificada (técnica de impressão térmica apical - TIT) ou não (técnica convencional - TC), e seu ajuste apical foi verificado. O milimetro apical do comprimento de trabalho foi examinado em micro-CT, os canais foram preenchidos com guta-percha e cimento, e novas imagens em micro-CT foram obtidas. Na TC, a guta-percha preencheu 35,83 ± 15,05% do canal no momento da seleção do cone e 38,72 ± 11,64% após a obturação. Na TIT, estes valores foram de 23,14 ± 7,74% e 26,98 ± 20,40%, respectivamente. O volume de guta-percha no material obturador, e o volume do material obturador em relação ao canal, foram, respectivamente, 61,28 ± 11,64% e 87,76 ± 9,98% para a TC, e 73,00 ± 20,41% e 89,96 ± 9,08% para TIT. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre a seleção do cone e depois o preenchimento do canal para ambas as técnicas, TC (p =0,593) ou TIT (p=0,4975). As técnicas não diferiram significativamente com respeito ao volume de guta-percha no material obturador (p=0,132), e volume de preenchimento de material em relação ao canal (p=0,612). Um ajuste ideal do cone principal de guta-percha cone no seu comprimento de trabalho não foi alcançado, independentemente da técnica de seleção empregada, e a area preenchida pelo material obturador foi semelhante para ambas as técnicas.