Abstract Fruits and derivatives, such as juices, are complex mixtures of chemicals, some of which may have mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potential, while others may have antimutagenic and/or anticancer activities. The modulating effects of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar (HSCAN), on somatic mutation and recombination induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and mitomycin C (MMC) were evaluated with the wing spot test in Drosophila melanogaster using co- and post-treatment protocols. Additionally, the antimutagenic activity of two HSCAN components, cashew apple pulp and honey, in MMC-induced DNA damage was also investigated. HSCAN reduced the mutagenic activity of both EMS and MMC in the co-treatment protocol, but had a co-mutagenic effect when post-administered. Similar results were also observed with honey on MMC mutagenic activity. Cashew apple pulp was effective in exerting protective or enhancing effects on the MMC mutagenicity, depending on the administration protocol and concentration used. Overall, these results indicate that HSCAN, cashew apple and honey seem capable of modulating not only the events that precede the induced DNA damages, but also the Drosophila DNA repair processes involved in the correction of EMS and MMC-induced damages.
Farm workers are often exposed to pesticides, which are products belonging to a specific chemical group that affects the health of agricultural workers and is mostly recognized as genotoxic and carcinogenic. The exposure of workers from Piauí, Brazil, to these hazardous chemicals was assessed and cytogenetic alterations were evaluated using the buccal micronucleus assay, hematological and lipid parameters, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, such as PON1, as well as of the DNA repair system (OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC4). Two groups of farm workers exposed to different types of pesticides were evaluated and compared to matched non-exposed control groups. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of micronuclei, kariorrhexis, karyolysis and binucleated cells in the exposed groups (n = 100) compared to controls (n = 100). No differences were detected regarding the hematological parameters, lipid profile and BChE activity. No significant difference was observed either regarding DNA damage or nuclear fragmentation when specific metabolizing and DNA repair genotypes were investigated in the exposed groups.
The genotoxicity of bloom head (BHE) and leaf (LE) extracts from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), and their ability to modulate the mutagenicity and recombinogenicity of two alkylating agents (ethyl methanesulfonate - EMS and mitomycin C - MMC) and the intercalating agent bleomycin (BLM), were examined using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither the mutagenicity nor the recombinogenicity of BLM or MMC was modified by co- or post-treatment with BHE or LE. In contrast, co-treatment with BHE significantly enhanced the EMS-induced genotoxicity involving mutagenic and/or recombinant events. Co-treatment with LE did not alter the genotoxicity of EMS whereas post-treatment with the highest dose of LE significantly increased this genotoxicity. This enhancement included a synergistic increase restricted to somatic recombination. These results show that artichoke extracts promote homologous recombination in proliferative cells of D. melanogaster.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the specific antiviral protection via RNA interference (RNAi) against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were injected with a dsRNA specific sequence (vp28 from the viral envelope), followed by challenge, with WSSV after 48 hours. The hemogram was evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after challenge and the mortality rate during 30 days. In animals treated with vp28 dsRNA the viral infection was limited, and survival (73%) and viral clearance (80%) were higher than in infected, not treated shrimp, which showed 100% mortality within five days. In shrimp treated with dsRNA, the hemogram decreased until 6 hours after viral challenge, followed by an increase, reaching normal levels at 72 hours. The treatment with vp28 dsRNA limits WSSV infection in shrimp, restores their immune conditions, and promotes viral clearance in most survivors. These results indicate that vp28 dsRNA can serve as a molecular tool for combating WSSV, and that RNAi represents a promising approach for the control of viral diseases in cultured shrimp.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a proteção antiviral específica via RNA de interferência (RNAi) contra o vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV), em camarões marinhos (Litopenaeus vannamei). Os camarões foram injetados com uma sequência dsRNA específica (vp28 do envelope viral), seguida por desafio com WSSV após 48 horas. Avaliaram-se o hemograma às 0, 3, 6, 24, 48 e 72 horas após o desafio, e a taxa de mortalidade durante 30 dias. Nos animais tratados com dsRNA vp28, a infecção viral foi limitada, e a sobrevivência (73%) e a "clearance" viral (80%) foram maiores do que nos camarões infectados, não tratados, que apresentaram 100% de mortalidade em cinco dias. Nos camarões tratados com dsRNA, o hemograma diminuiu até 6 horas após o desafio, seguido por aumento, tendo atingido o nível normal em 72 horas. O tratamento com dsRNA vp28 limita a infecção nos camarões por WSSV, restaura as suas condições imunológicas e promove "clearance" viral na maioria dos sobreviventes. Esses resultados são indicativos de que dsRNA vp28 pode servir como ferramenta molecular para combater o WSSV e que o RNAi representa abordagem promissora para controlar doenças virais em camarões cultivados.
Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ) was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC) and doxorrubicin (DXR) using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 ), were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ.
Noni, nome Havaiano da fruta de Morinda citrifolia L., é uma planta medicinal e tradicional da Polinésia amplamente usada para o tratamento de muitas doenças entre as quais artrite, diabetes, asma, hipertensão e câncer. Neste trabalho, um suco comercial de noni (TNJ) foi avaliado para suas atividades protetoras contras as lesões induzidas por mitomicina C (MMC) e doxorrubicina (DXR) usando o teste de mutação e recombinação somática em Drosophila melanogaster. Larvas de terceiro estágio, trans-heterozigotas para dois genes marcadores (mwh e flr3 ), foram cotratadas com TNJ mais MMC ou DXR. Observamos uma redução dos efeitos genotóxicos de MMC e DXR pelo suco. TNJ induziu uma forte redução em todos os tipos de manchas mutantes induzidas por MMC e DXR principalmente devido a uma atividade antirecombinante. Os efeitos protetotes de TNJ foram dependentes da concentração, indicando uma correlação dose-resposta, os quais podem ser atribuídos a uma potente ação antioxidante e/ou habilidade de sequestrar radicais livres pelo TNJ.
CONTEXT: Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusions of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated effects hepatics alterations and genotoxic and antidiabetic effect of Croton cajucara Benth bark extracts treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control rats; control rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth extract during 5 and 20 days; diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth during 5 and 20 days. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg). Eight weeks later we measured glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and hepatic transaminases on blood. The bone marrow micronucleus assay was used to assess the genotoxic activity of Croton cajucara Benth. RESULTS: Treatment with aqueous extrat of Croton cajucara was able to significantly reduce levels of triglycerides in diabetic animals, however, did not modify significantly the levels of glucose and cholesterol in these animals. There was no significant elevation in liver transaminases in the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth, as there was no genotoxic effect of treatment in this model. Our results did not show a significant effect on glucose and cholesterol reduction, the treatment was able to significantly reduce triclycerides plasmatic level. There was no significant alterations on hepatic transferase in the animals from the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth. It was observed no genotoxic effect of the treatment in the model studied. CONCLUSION: In this study Croton cajucara bark extract showed absence of hepatotoxicity in this animal model and presented a hypolipidemic activity, and could be used to reverse dyslipidemia associated with diabetes and to prevent the cardiovascular complications that are very prevalent in diabetic patients.
CONTEXTO: Croton cajucara Benth é uma planta encontrada na Amazônia, Brasil. Infusões da casca e folhas desta planta são utilizadas popularmente no tratamento de diabetes e doenças hepáticas. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo investigou as alterações hepáticas e os efeitos genotóxicos da casca do extrato do Croton cajucara Benth em animais diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em seis grupos: ratos controle, ratos controle tratados com extrato de Croton cajucara Benth durante 5 e 20 dias, ratos diabéticos e diabéticos tratados com Croton cajucara Benth durante 5 e 20 dias. O diabetes foi induzido por uma única injeção intraperitonial de estreptozotocina (70 mg/kg). Oito semanas mais tarde foram medidos os níveis de glicose, triglicerídios, colesterol e transaminases hepáticas no sangue. O teste do micronúcleo da medula óssea foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade genotóxica do Croton cajucara Benth. RESULTADOS: O tratamento com o extrato aquoso do Croton cajucara foi capaz de reduzir significativamente os níveis plasmásticos dos triglicerídios nos animais diabéticos, porém, não modificaram significativamente os níveis de glicose e colesterol nesses animais. Não houve elevação significativa nas transaminases hepáticas nos animais do grupo controle tratadas com Croton cajucara Benth, assim como também não houve efeito genotóxico do tratamento, no modelo estudado. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato aquoso da casca do Croton cajucara Benth foi hipolipemiante, sugerindo seu uso para prevenir as dislipidemias encontradas em pacientes diabéticos.
This study evaluated the clastogenic and/or aneugenic potential of three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine - AZT, lamivudine - 3TC and stavudine - d4T) using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocyte cultures. All three inhibitors produced a positive response when tested in binucleated cells. The genotoxicity of AZT and 3TC was restricted to binucleated cells since there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in mononucleated cells. This finding indicated that AZT and 3TC caused chromosomal breakage and that their genotoxicity was related to a clastogenic action. In addition to the positive response observed with d4T in binucleated cells, this drug also increased the frequency of micronuclei in mononucleated cells, indicating clastogenic and aneugenic actions. Since the structural differences between AZT and 3TC and AZT and d4T involve the 3' position in the 2'-deoxyribonucleoside and in an unsaturated 2',3',dideoxyribose, respectively, we suggest that an unsaturated 2', 3', dideoxyribose is responsible for the clastogenic and aneugenic actions of d4T.
An art gallery open to the city. The sculptures are shown on an entrance patio to generate the relation with the immediate context. On the interior, the rooms follow one another to achieve more intimacy and calm. The importance of light management is taken as a challenge, generating specific controls for the places of exposition.
Una galería de arte abierta a la ciudad. Las esculturas se exponen en un patio de acceso para generar la relación con el contexto inmediato. En el interior, las salas se suceden para lograr mayor intimidad y sosiego. La importancia del manejo de la luz es tomada como un desafío, generando controles específicos para los lugares de exposición.
Chronic airway obstruction (CAO) resulting from tuberculosis (TB) sequelae (CAO-TB) is a frequent condition in our population. However the information in the medical literature is scarce. The management of these patients usually follows guidelines for other illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. To better characterize CAO-TB, 25 patients with this condition that never smoked nor were diagnosed having asthma, were studied by means of spirometry, arterial blood gases and 6-minute walk test. Furthermore, they were compared with 12 COPD patients with similar FEV1 values. CAO-TB patients had history of tuberculosis 35 ± 11 years earlier, and all of them presented with lung scarring in one or both upper lobes. They were younger than COPD (58 ± 11 vs 69 ± 6 y.o.; p = 0.001) and females predominated over males (20/5 vs 2/10; p = 0.001). The FEV1/FVC ratio pre- and post-bronchodilator were higher in CAO-TB than in COPD patients (67% ± 12 vs 54% ± 9 pre; p = 0.001; 65% ± 14 vs 51% ± 7; p = 0.003 post, respectively). There were no differences in the remaining spirometric indices nor in arterial blood gases. The 6-min distance walked was comparable in both groups: 343 m (69%) in CAO-TB and 361 m (76%) in COPD. There were no differences in the oxygen saturation nor in heart rate neither at the beginning nor at the end of the 6-min walk test. However, CAO-TB patients had a higher respiratory rate at the beginning (22.7 ± 4.7 vs 19.8 ± 3.1 breath/min; p = 0.05) and at the end of the walk test (27.3 ± 6.7 vs 21.9 ± 3.3; p = 0.01) than COPD patients; although the Borg dyspnoea score was not different (1 ± 0,7 vs 1 ± 0.5 initial, 3 ± 1.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 final). Furthermore, a significant linear correlation between respiratory rate and Borg score was found both at the beginning (r = 0.747; p < 0.001) and at the end (r = 0.507; p = 0.01) of the walk test. In conclusion, CAO-TB patients are functionally comparable to COPD patients, although they have higher respiratory rate and develop more dyspnoea because of their added restrictive impairment. In addition to spirometry, tests for assessment of dyspnoea such as 6-minute walk test must be considered, to evaluate the response to treatment in CAO-TB patients
La limitación crónica al flujo aéreo (LCFA) secundaria a secuelas de tuberculosis (LCFA-TB) es relativamente frecuente en nuestro medio, pero la información sobre esta condición en la literatura es escasa. El manejo terapéutico de estos enfermos suele seguir las guías de otras entidades como la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) y el Asma Bronquial. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la LCFA-TB, 25 enfermos con esta condición, que nunca fumaron ni tuvieron asma, fueron estudiados mediante espirometría, gasometría arterial y prueba de caminata de 6 minutos. Los pacientes LCFA-TB fueron comparados con 12 pacientes EPOC que tenían un grado similar de obstrucción. Los enfermos con LCFA-TB habían presentado tuberculosis 35 ± 11 años antes y tenían lesiones fibrosas con retracción en uno o ambos lóbulos superiores. Eran más jóvenes que los pacientes con EPOC (58 ± 11 vs 69 ± 6 años; p = 0,001) y predominaban las mujeres sobre los hombres (20/5 vs 2/10; p = 0,001). La relación VEF1/CVF basal fue más elevada en los pacientes con LCFA-TB que en los con EPOC (67% ± 12 vs 54% ± 9; p = 0,001) al igual que la relación VEF1/CVF posterior a broncodilatador (65% ± 14 vs 51% ± 7; p = 0,003). No hubo diferencias en los demás índices espirométricos ni en los gases arteriales. La distancia recorrida en 6 minutos fue similar en ambos grupos de pacientes: 343 m (69%) en LCFA-TB y 361 m (76%) en EPOC. No hubo diferencias en la oximetría ni en la frecuencia cardíaca inicial ni final. En cambio, los pacientes con LCFA-TB presentaron una frecuencia respiratoria (FR) más elevada que los pacientes con EPOC, tanto al comienzo (22,7 ± 4,7 vs 19,8 ± 3,1; p = 0,05) como al final de la prueba (27,3 ± 6,7 vs 21,9 ± 3,3; p = 0,01). Aunque no hubo diferencias en el grado de disnea (escala de Borg: 1 ±0,7 vs 1 ± 0,5 inicial, 3 ± 1,5 vs 2,5 ± 0,8 final). Además, existió una correlación significativa entre la FR y los puntos de la escala de Borg al inicio de la prueba (r = 0,747; p < 0,001) y al final de ésta (r = 0,507; p = 0,01). En conclusión, los pacientes con LCFA-TB tienen un comportamiento funcional parecido a los pacientes con EPOC, aunque por el componente restrictivo de su limitación ventilatoria presentan más polipnea y tienden a desarrollar más disnea con el ejercicio. La valoración de la respuesta al tratamiento en estos enfermos debiera considerar, además de la espirometría, pruebas de evaluación de disnea como la distancia recorrida en seis minutos
Several studies have investigated the relationship between heterozygosity, genetic distance and production traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the degree of heterozygosity and genetic distance on growth, carcass and reproductive related features in F1 bovine crosses. We tested 10 polymorphic markers in 330 purebred cattle (Nelore, Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and Simental) and 256 crossbred cattle belonging to four crossbred groups. Individual heterozygosities (Hi) and multilocus genetic similarity (Dm) were estimated and used in correlation analysis against individual phenotypic measurements. Significant (p < 0.05) Hi effects occurred for birth weight, 15 to 18 month weight, hot carcass weight and longissimus rib eye area. The extent to which increased heterozygosity (deltaH) in F1 crosses can be predicted from the genetic distance of parental breeds was also investigated using Nei's standard genetic distance (Ds) and standard heterozygosity (Hs). High correlations were found between deltaHi, deltaHs and the Ds of the parental breeds. Our results suggest that heterozygosity of the ten molecular markers used in this study may affect live weight during at least one growth phase. Parental genetic distance was a suitable predictor of the degree of progeny heterozygosity.
In the present work, 180 Nellore females from eight herds were analyzed for TEXAN15, BM1224 and CSFM50 microsatellites and for the restriction fragments polymorphism (RFLP) at the locos k-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and growth hormone (GH). Excepted for GH, all markers were polymorphic in the studied sample. The values of heterozigozity, gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC) and paternity exclusion probability (PE) were estimated. The highest PIC (0.685) and PE (0.521) values were obtained for microsatellite BM1224.
No presente trabalho, 180 fêmeas da raça Nelore, provenientes de oito rebanhos, foram analisadas quanto aos marcadores microssatélites TEXAN15, BM1224 e CSFM50 e aos polimorfismos de comprimento de fragmentos de restrição (RFLP) nos locos k-caseína, beta-lactoglobulina e hormônio de crescimento (GH). Com exceção de GH, todos os marcadores foram polimórficos na amostra estudada. Os valores de heterozigosidade, diversidade gênica, conteúdo de informação polimórfica (PIC) e probabilidade de exclusão de paternidade (PE) foram estimados. Os maiores valores de PIC (0,685) e PE (0,521) foram obtidos para o marcador BM1224.