ABSTRACT Introduction: Vesicostomy should be considered in children with neuropathic bladder in case first-line therapies fail. This simple and reversible procedure can reduce febrile urinary tract infections and protect the upper urinary tract (1) until more definitive alternatives can be proposed. We describe in this video how we approach patients that underwent vesicostomy and want it to be converted into a continent catheterizable reservoir. Material and methods: We perform an infra-umbilical longitudinal incision with a semicircular flap where the stoma will be placed (outside vesicostomy). After releasing the bladder, we proceed with usual steps of the Macedo-Pouch technique (2). We perform the reservoir from 35cm of ileum that constructs a catheterizable channel from the same bowel segment from a 3cm width flap from anterior and posterior wall of ileum in the mid part of it. The continence mechanism of the efferent tube is based on angulation and a serous lined tunnel created with 3-4 3.0 prolene sutures. The stoma is placed in the midline (3). Results: Patient had an uneventful evolution and is continent performing CIC every 4 hours with 9 months of follow-up. We have in the last 3 years a consecutive series of 12 patients operated according to this principle. Discussion: Vesicostomy should be regarded as an alternative for patients with neurogenic bladder refractory to clinical treatment at a younger age in order to postpone definitive treatment such as any an enterocystoplasty. This option must be considered as transient, since definitive reconstructive surgery can provide preservation of renal function and continence achievement. In this context, our video demonstrates that performing a bladder augmentation on a patient with a vesicostomy is safe and feasible. We reinforce that our method precludes the need of appendix or creation of a Monti tube as the outlet channel and the whole procedure is performed from a single piece of bowel.
ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Quality of Life Assessment in Spina Bifida (QUALAS), children and teenager’s versions (QUALAS C and T, respectively). This is the first self-applicable quality of life assessment tool for patients under 13 years of age, which also addresses the issue of urinary and fecal incontinence. Methods: Two urologists performed the translation of both QUALAS versions. A commission produced a consensus version (Version 2), which was applied as a pilot study to define Version 3. It was then backtranslated into English and compared with the original version for equivalence of concepts. Internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) reproducibility was analyzed after two assessments with an interval from two to four weeks. Convergent and divergent validities between the QUALAS and a generic health-related quality of life questionnaire, the KIDSCREEN-27, were studied through Pearson’s correlation. Results: The reliability analysis showed good internal consistency for QUALAS-C (α=0.73) and QUALAS-T (α=0.79) and good reproducibility in both questionnaires (QUALAS-C - ICC=0.86; QUALAS-T - ICC=0.92). For QUALAS-C convergent validity, there was a low correlation between its items (r=0.35). In addition, a low correlation was also found in the divergent validity analysis, when compared to the KIDSCREEN-27 (r≤0.33). Convergent and divergent validities of the QUALAS-T questionnaire had similar results: r=0.46 and r≤0.49, respectively. Conclusions: After the adaptation and validation process, QUALAS-C and QUALAS-T questionnaires showed to be reliable and valid instruments for measuring the health-related quality of life of children and teenagers with spina bifida aged 8 years or older.
RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a confiabilidade e a validade do questionário QUALAS (Quality of Life Assessment in Spina Bifida) nas versões para crianças e adolescentes (QUALAS-C e QUALAS-T, respectivamente). Este é o primeiro instrumento autoaplicável de avaliação da qualidade de vida para pacientes menores de 13 anos e que também aborda a questão das incontinências urinária e fecal. Métodos: Dois urologistas realizaram a tradução das duas versões do QUALAS. Uma comissão produziu uma versão de consenso (Versão 2), a qual foi aplicada no estudo piloto para definir a Versão 3. Esta foi retrotraduzida para o inglês e comparada à versão original para equivalência de conceitos. Para verificar a confiabilidade, analisou-se a consistência interna com o alfa de Cronbach e a reprodutibilidade com o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI) após duas aplicações do questionário em intervalo de duas a quatro semanas. As validades convergente e divergente foram estudadas por meio da correlação de Pearson entre o QUALAS e um questionário genérico de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, o KIDSCREEN-27. Resultados: A análise de confiabilidade revelou que ambos os questionários apresentaram boa consistência interna (QUALAS-C - α=0,73; QUALAS-T - α=0,79) e boa reprodutibilidade (QUALAS-C - CCI=0,86; QUALAS-T - CCI=0,92). Na análise da validade convergente do QUALAS-C, observou-se baixa correlação entre os itens (r=0,35). Além disso, a análise da validade divergente também demonstrou baixa correlação quando comparada ao KIDSCREEN-27 (r≤0,33). As validades convergente e divergente do questionário QUALAS-T tiveram resultados semelhantes: r=0,46 e r≤0,49, respectivamente. Conclusões: Após o processo de adaptação e validação, pode-se afirmar que os questionários QUALAS-C e QUALAS-T são instrumentos confiáveis e válidos para a mensuração da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de crianças e adolescentes com espinha bífida a partir dos 8 anos de idade.
ABSTRACT Introduction We present an alternative procedure for distal hypospadias consisting of urethral mobilization and partial glandar disassembly, namely GUD (glandar urethral disassembly) technique. Materials and Methods A subcoronal circumcision exposes distal dysplastic urethra. We incise the Buck´s fascia on both sides of urethra releasing it partially from the corpora. We keep a thin bridge of urethral plate to the glans and disassembly almost completely the glans from the corpora, except for the bridge. The glans is incised creating two wide wings that are extremely mobile. The urethra is mobilized, advanced and sutured to the tip of the glans. The glans wings embrace the distal urethra producing a conical glans. Discussion The concept of urethral mobilization has been reported and popularized by Koff in the literature to correct distal hypospadias. One of the limitations of this procedure is the risk of urethral retraction due to extensive proximal dissection. We got inspiration from Mitchell and Bagli’ s work of penile disassembly in epispadias to develop the GUD concept. We adopt minimal urethral mobilization mainly in glandar/proximal penile shaft and complete deconstruction of the glans, detaching the corpora from the glans and rotating the wide glans wings to embrace the urethra. Therefore we avoid suture urethroplasty and refurbish the glans to a better conical shape. Conclusion We are convinced that this operation can be regarded as a genuine alternative to distal hypospadias (coronal and subcoronal) but should not be addressed to midshaft forms.
ABSTRACT Introduction: The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) has been suggested as a possible marker of renal injury in chronic diseases. This study proposes to analyze the serum and urinary markers of the RAAS in myelomeningocele patients with renal function abnormalities detected on DMSA. Material and Methods: Seventeen patients followed in our institution that presented with renal injury on DMSA. We review nephrologic and urologic clinical aspects and evaluated ultrassonagraphy, voiding urethrocystography and urodynamics. Urinary and serum samples were collected to evaluate possible correlations of renal lesions with RAAS. Control group urine and serum samples were also sent for analysis. Results: Serum ACE 2 activity means in relation to urodynamic findings were the only values that had a statistically significant difference (p = 0.040). Patients with normal bladder pattern presented higher ACE 2 levels than the high risk group. Statistical analysis showed that the study group (SG) had a significantly higher mean serum ACE than the CG. The means of ACE 2 and urinary ACE of the SG and CG were not statistically different. The ROC curve for serum ACE values had a statistically significant area for case and non-case differentiation, with 100% sensitivity and 53% specificity for values above 60.2 mg/dL. No statistically significant areas were observed in relation to ACE 2 and urinary ACE values between SG and CG. Conclusion: The analysis of serum ACE, ACE 2 and urinary ACE were not significant in patients with myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder with renal injury previously detected by renal DMSA.
ABSTRACT Introduction and objective Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly, with roughly 200 cases reported in the literature (1). It is more frequent in males, with few cases reported in females. The clinical presentation differs according to the anatomical variant present. The duplication most commonly occurs in the sagittal plane with one urethra located ventrally and the other dorsally (2). Usually the ventral urethra is the more functional of both. Duplications occurring in the coronal plane are quite rare and they are usually associated with bladder duplication (3). The purpose of this paper was to present a video of a boy with an unusual urethral duplication form. Materials and Methods Patient was born premature due to oligohydramnios at 7 months-gestational age and he has initial diagnosis of hypospadia. Since then, he presented at least 7 febrile UTI and mother complained of difficult micturition and a presence of a mass at lower abdomen. Patient was referred to our institution and we identified urethral duplication with a glandar and scrotal meatus, palpable bladder and left penile-hemiscrotum transposition. US and CT-scan showed left kidney agenesis and overdistended bladder. VCUG and retrograde urethrography showed duplication, presence of contrast in the seminal vesicles and complete catheterizing of both urethras was not possible. Results The topic urethra was dysplastic and not patent to a 4Fr plastic tube so we were unable to access it endoscopically. We performed initially a Mitrofanoff procedure to allow CIC and treat chronic retention. Six months later, we assessed both urethras surgically and concluded that dorsal urethra was dysplastic after 3cm still in the penile area and scrotal urethra was not possible to be catheterized. We excised the ventral urethra because of dribbling complaints up to bulbar area and reconstructed the scrotal transposition, keeping the topic urethra for cosmetic issues. Patient had excellent outcome, performs CIC every 4 hours and has not presented further UTI episodes. Discussion and conclusion The urethral duplication is an anomaly that has multiple anatomical presentations. There are several theories about the etiology, but none can explain all types of presentations. There is also more than one rating available, and the Effmann classification is the most detailed. The case exemplifies this varied spectrum of anatomic urethral duplication. It resembles the urethral duplication type IIa-Y, however, ventral urethra meatus was located in penoscrotal area and both urethras were at least partially hypoplastic/dysplastic associated with obstruction and bladder retention. In determining how to best manage a patient with Y-type urethral duplication, the caliber and quality of the orthotopic urethra must first be assessed. Published reports suggest that best outcomes are those using the ventral duplicated urethra for the reconstruction (4). In this case, none of urethras were functional and a supravesical outlet channel had to be provided. The treatment of this condition requires an individualized planning and a vast technical knowledge of reconstructive surgery.
ABSTRACT We report a case of secondary urinary reconstruction of previously separated conjoined twins with exstrophic bladder and urinary incontinence. Patients were male and aged 13-year-old. Twin one had a history of failed enterocystoplasty that extruded and was visible like an exstrophic neobladder. He underwent a procedure to close bladder neck and reconfigure abdominal wall. After the procedure the patient developed a fistula that was treated, but it persisted and, for this reason, a catheterizable pouch was constructed and native bladder was discarded. Twin two required the immediately construction of catheterizable pouch using the Macedo’s technique. Currently, both patients are continent at 4 hour intervals. The mean follow-up was 8 months. Modern continent urinary diversion techniques offer new perspectives and hope for such complex population.
RESUMO Relata-se caso de reconstrução urinária em gêmeos siameses previamente separados com apresentação clínica de bexiga extrófica e incontinência urinária. Os dois pacientes eram do sexo masculino com idade de 13 anos. O primeiro gêmeo apresentava falha da enterocistoplastia com extrusão e visualização da neobexiga extrófica, tendo sido submetido ao fechamento do colo vesical e à reconfiguração da parede abdominal. Após o procedimento, o paciente desenvolveu fístula, que foi tratada, mas persistiu. Posteriormente, optamos por bolsa cateterizável, descartando a bexiga nativa. O segundo gêmeo foi submetido à construção imediata de bolsa cateterizável, por meio da técnica de Macedo. Atualmente, ambos os pacientes estão continentes em intervalos de 4 horas. O seguimento médio foi de 8 meses. As atuais técnicas de derivação urinária oferecem novas perspectivas e esperança para esta população complexa.
ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop a rabbit experimental study to test the hypothesis that surgical repair of hypospadias with severe ventral curvatures might be completed in one stage, if a graft, such as buccal mucosa, could be placed over the tunica vaginalis flap used in corporoplasty for ventral lengthening, with the addition of an onlay preputial island flap to complete the urethroplasty. Materials and methods: The experimental procedure with rabbits included a tunica vaginalis flap for reconstruction of the corpora after corporotomy, simulating a ventral lengthening operation. A buccal mucosa graft was placed directly on top of the flap, and the urethroplasty was completed with an onlay preputial island flap. Eight rabbits were divided into 4 groups, sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively, and submitted to histological evaluation. Results: We observed a large number of complications, such as fistula (75%), urinary retention (50%) and stenosis (50%). There were two deaths related to the procedure. Histological evaluation demonstrated a severe and persistent inflammatory reaction. No viable tunica vaginalis or buccal mucosa was identified. Conclusions: In this animal model, the association of a buccal mucosa graft over the tunica vaginalis flap was not successful, and resulted in complete loss of both tissues.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) causes a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms, including urogenital manifestations. Transmission control and disability/morbidity management/control are the two pillars of the overall elimination strategy for LF. Lymph scrotum is an unusual urological clinical presentation of LF with important medical, psychological, social and economic repercussions. A retrospective case series study was conducted on outpatients attended at the National Reference Service for Filariasis, in an endemic area for filariasis (Recife, Brazil), between 2000 and 2007. Over this period, 6,361 patients were attended and seven cases with lymph scrotum were identified. Mean patient age was 45 years (range, 26 to 64 years). Mean disease duration was 8.5 years (range, two to 15 years). All patients had evidence of filarial infection from at least one laboratory test (parasitological, antigen investigation or "filarial dance sign" on ultrasound). Six patients presented histories of urological surgery. The authors highlight the importance of the association between filarial infection and the inadequate surgical and clinical management of hydrocele in an endemic area, as risk factors for lymph scrotum. Thus, filarial infection should be routinely investigated in all individuals presenting urological morbidity within endemic areas, in order to identify likely links in the transmission chain.
A filariose linfática (FL) é responsável por uma grande variedade de sinais e sintomas clínicos incluindo manifestações urogenitais. O controle da transmissão e da incapacitação bem como o manuseio da morbidade são os dois pilares da estratégia global de eliminação da FL. O linfoescroto é uma rara apresentação da FL, tendo importantes repercussões do ponto de vista clínico, psicológico e socioeconômico. Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo de uma série de casos com diagnóstico de linfoescroto, identificados entre os 6.361 pacientes ambulatoriais atendidos no período de 2000 a 2007 no Serviço de Referência Nacional em Filarioses (Recife, Brasil) área endêmica de filariose. Foram identificados sete casos, com a idade média de 45 anos (com variação de 26 a 64 anos). O tempo médio de evolução da doença foi de 8,5 anos (com variação de 2 a 15 anos). Todos apresentavam evidência de infecção filarial por algum dos exames realizados (parasitológico, pesquisa antigênica ou "sinal da dança da filaria" na ultrasonografia). Seis pacientes relatavam historia prévia de cirurgia urológica. Os autores destacam a importância da associação da infecção filarial e de inadequado manuseio cirúrgico e de acompanhamento de pacientes com hidrocele de uma área endêmica, como fatores de risco para o surgimento de linfoescroto. Assim, a infecção filarial deve ser rotineiramente investigada em todos os indivíduos procedentes de áreas endêmicas apresentando morbidade urológica, para identificar melhor os elementos da cadeia de transmissão.