ABSTRACT Piper cubeba is an Asian pepper used in popular medicine for its known antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory actions. The study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of Piper cubeba ethanolic extract (PE) as a replacement for anantibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on the performance and biochemical serum profile of 1- to 21-d-old broilers (Cobb®). Two hundred one-d-old broilers were housed in experimental battery cages and distributed in a completely randomized design. The following treatments were applied: negative control (NC) - basal diet; positive control (PC) - basal diet with addition of AGP; and the basal diet with inclusion of 0.17%, 0.34%, and 0.52% of PE (NCE1, NCE2, and NCE3, respectively). Growth performance, biochemical serum profile and internal organ weights were evaluated. Birds fed the AGP presented higher feed intake compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). The PC, NC, and NCE1 treatments presented higher weight gain compared with those fed NCE2 and NCE3 (p<0.05). The NC, NCE1, and NCE2 diets promoted better feed conversion ratio than the PC and NCE3 (p<0.05). Lower triglyceride serum levels were determined in broilers fed the NC and NCE1 diets. Amylase serum levels were lower in NCE1 and NCE2 treatments compared with the NC (p<0.05), whereas those obtained with the PC and NCE3 diets were not different (p>0.05) from the others. Organ relative weights were not influenced by the treatments. The inclusion of 0.17% of PE did not compromise the growth performance, biochemical serum profile or organ relative weights of 21-d-old broilers.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different linseed oil levels (0.0, 3.3, 6.6, or 9.9%) in iso-energy diets fed during the period of 21 to 56 days of age on the performance, carcass traits, and body composition of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments with eight replicates of 40 birds per experimental unit. In the period of 21-42 days of age, weight gain increased, feed and calorie conversion ratios quadratically improved, and feed and metabolizable energy intakes linearly increased as dietary linseed oil level increased. Considering the entire experimental period, dietary linseed oil linearly increased weight gain and feed and energy intakes, and feed and calorie conversion ratios in a quadratic manner. On days 42 and 56, abdominal fat percentage and carcass yield were quadratically influenced by dietary linseed oil. Total body fat content at 56 days of age was quadratically influenced by dietary linseed levels.
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of different levels of phytase on broiler performance, bone densitometry, and phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Nine hundred and sixty one-day old broilers, 50% males and 50% females, were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments and six replicates 32 birds each. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with the addition 25, 50, 75, and 100 g/ ton of phytase (250, 500, 750 and 1000 FTU of phytase/kg fed). Diets were formulated to contain equal nutritional levels, and considered the phytase product nutritional levels. In general, the addition of phytase resulted in a linear decrease in broiler performance. However, the performance results obtained with the level of 250 FTU phytase/kg feed were not different from the control treatment. The best bone density results were observed in the control treatment, with no phytase. The results of this experiment indicate that the nutritional matrix of the phytase product needs to be reviewed when added in levels higher 250 FTU/kg to broiler diets.
Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1), 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2), and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3), with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE) and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.
An experiment was carried out to evaluate different criteria in feed formulation based on digestible amino acids for broilers during the grower phase. Diets were formulated according to the recommendations for digestible methionine, methionine + cysteine, lysine, and threonine. A total number of six hundred Cobb 500 male day-old chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with three formulation criteria supplying the recommendations established by Baker & Chung (1992), Degussa (1997), and Rostagno et al. (2000), with 4 replicates of 50 birds each. No significant differences were observed for weight gain and feed intake. However, feed conversion ratio improved when birds were fed the diets containing the profiles recommended by Baker & Chung (1992) and Degussa (1997). No difference was observed in terms of leg, wings, back, and head yields. Broilers fed with the profile of Baker & Chung (1992) presented worst breast yield, whereas those fed the Degussa (1997) standard had better carcass yield.
An experiment was conduced to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal (SBM) in commercial layer diets formulated on total or digestible amino acids basis. One hundred forty-four 41-week-old Lohmann LSL layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with three replications of six birds each. Treatments consisted of a combination of four SBM inclusion levels SBM(0%, 4%, 8%, and 12%) and feed formulation according two amino acid recommendations (total or digestible). The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass) were evaluated for each period. In the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality (Haugh units, specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness, and eggshell percentage). Hens fed on total amino acid recommendation presented the highest values for egg weight. Diets formulated on digestible amino acids basis showed an improvement in eggshell percentage and egg specific gravity. SBM addition in commercial layer diets did not influence performance; however, increasing SBM dietary levels SBM improved eggshell quality.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate different commercial laying hen diets formulated based on recommendations for total and digestible amino acids. One hundred and twenty Lohmann LSL commercial laying hens aged 25 weeks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design involving five replications of six birds in four treatments. Diet formulation on a total amino acid basis followed the recommendations of NRC (1994) and Rostagno et al. (2000), whereas formulation on digestible amino acids basis was according to Rostagno et al. (2000) and Degussa (1997) recommendations. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass) were evaluated for each period, and on the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality parameters (Haugh unit, egg specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness and percentage). Means were compared by orthogonal contrasts. Results on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion and egg specific gravity showed that total amino acid recommendations promoted better bird responses than digestible amino acid recommendations.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the enzyme phytase in diets formulated with different phosphorus sources on performance, eggshell quality and excretion of commercial laying hens. Two hundred and eighty-eight commercial Hyssex Brown laying hens were evaluated during two production phases, which included eight twenty-eight-day cycles, using a completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial with six replicates of eight birds per treatment. Three phosphorus sources (calcium and sodium phosphate, micro-granulated dicalcium phosphate and triple super phosphate) and two phytase levels (0 or 1000 FTU/kg diet) were tested in the composition of the diets. After the post-peak period, triple super phosphate decreased bird performance and eggshell quality. It was possible to reduce the levels of phosphorus supplementation when phytase was added to the diet. Besides, phytase supplementation reduced phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen excretions, but affected mean egg weight at production peak.
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible) according to Rostagno et al. (2000) and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01) and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg) or per dozen eggs (p<0.01) compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.
Two experiments were carried out using 712 day-old chicks to evaluate the electrolytic balance (Na+K-Cl) in pre-starter (1-7 days) broiler diets. The feed, based on corn and soybean meal with 21.5 % protein and 2,900 kcal ME/kg, was offered ad libitum. In experiment I, K level was fixed, and Na and Cl levels were changed, using four 4 treatments and eight replicates of 16 birds. In experiment II, increasing levels of Na and K were used, with a total of four treatments and five repetitions of 10 birds. In both experiments, the dietary electrolytic balance was 40; 140; 240 and 340 mEq/kg. Electrolytic balance caused a quadratic effect on weight gain and feed:gain ratio, and a linear increase in feed intake when the electrolytic balance was increased by the single supplementation of Na, indicating that this ion stimulates feed intake of birds at this stage. However, feed intake was maximum for 202 mEq/kg, when K and Na levels were concurrently increased in the diet, indicating that there is a limit over which feed intake is depressed as a function of excessive K. The ideal electrolytic dietary balance was between 246 and 277 mEq/kg, obtained by the manipulation of Na and Cl levels.
Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, utilizando-se 712 pintos de corte para avaliar o efeito do balanço eletrolítico (Na+K-Cl) em rações pré-iniciais (1-7 dias) de frangos de corte. As rações à base de milho e farelo de soja, com 21,5 % de proteína e 2.900 kcal EM/kg, foram oferecidas à vontade. No experimento I, o nível de K foi fixado e os níveis de Na e Cl foram manipulados, em 4 tratamentos com 8 repetições de 16 aves cada. No experimento II, níveis mais elevados de Na e K foram usados, com 4 tratamentos e 5 repetições de 10 aves cada. Em ambos os experimentos, os balanços eletrolíticos foram de 40; 140; 240 e 340 mEq/kg de ração. O balanço eletrolítico causou um efeito quadrático no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar e um aumento linear no consumo de alimento quando o balanço eletrolítico foi aumentado pela suplementação de Na, indicando que esse íon estimula o consumo de alimento das aves nesse período. Porém, o consumo de alimento foi máximo em 202 mEq/kg, quando os níveis de K e Na foram simultaneamente aumentados na dieta, indicando que o limite superior de consumo de alimento é deprimido em função do K em excesso. O balanço eletrolítico ideal foi entre 246 e 277 mEq/kg obtidos pela manipulação dos níveis de Na e Cl.
Two experiment were carried out using 520 one-day old male broilers to evaluate the effect of crude protein and of electrolytic balance ( Na+K-Cl) in starter diet on broilers performance. The experiment I (1 to 7 days of age) was accomplished in batteries, being used 160 one-day old male 'Cobb", in the experiment II (1 to 21 days of age), used 360 one-day old male "Avian Farms" that were housed in an shed experimental, divide in box. In the two experiments, the birds were heated with infrared lamps and they received water and ration at large. Experimental designs were completely randomized factorial 2x2 (proteins levels and Mongin of number) with five replications of eight birds each for experiment I and factorial 2x3 (proteins levels and Mongin of number) with three replications of twenty birds each for experiment II. The level of potassium was maintained constant, the levels of Na and Cl were varied to obtain the electrolytic balance. The performances parameters (feed intake (g), weight gain (g) and feed:gain) were analyzed in the end of each experimental phase. In both experiments there was no interaction between crude protein and electrolytic balance. The crude protein levels (21 and 23,5 %) did not influenced the broilers performance. In pre-starter and starter diets the best performance was obtained with electrolytic balance of 260 mEq/kg.
Foram realizados dois experimentos utilizando-se 520 pintos machos de um dia para avaliar o efeito da proteína bruta (PB) e do balanço eletrolítico (Na + K- Cl) sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte no período inicial. O Experimento I (1 a 7 dias de idade das aves) foi realizado em baterias, utilizando-se 160 pintos machos "Cobb", no Experimento II (1 a 21 dias) foram utilizados 360 pintos machos "Aviam Farms" que foram alojados em um galpão experimental dividido em box. Nos dois experimentos as aves foram aquecidas com lâmpadas infravermelhas e receberam água e ração à vontade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (PB x balanço eletrolítico - BE), com 5 repetições e 8 aves por unidade experimental no Experimento I e fatorial 2 x 3 (PB x BE), com 3 repetições e 20 aves por unidade experimental no Experimento II. Os níveis de K foram mantidos constantes, oscilando-se o Na e o Cl para obter os balanços eletrolíticos desejados. Os parâmetro de desempenho (consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar) foram analisados no final de cada fase experimental. Em ambos os experimentos não houve interação entre PB e BE. Os níveis de 21,0 e 23,5% de PB não afetaram o desempenho das aves. Em dietas pré-iniciais e iniciais o melhor desempenho foi atingido com 260 mEq/kg.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age fed diets based on the concept of crude protein and ideal protein. In experiment one, four hundred one-day Cobb male birds, were allocated in experimental design involving 2 treatments (crude protein and ideal protein) with 5 replications of 40 broilers each. In experiment two, 800 birds were used, 400 males and 400 females, in factorial arrangement 2x2 (2 concept - crude protein and ideal protein and 2 sex) with 4 treatments with 5 replications of 40 broilers each. The digestible amino acid and total amino acid recommendations were based on DEGUSSA (1997). Data from performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion) were collected. Broilers fed diet based on ideal protein showed greater weight gain and feed intake in experiment 1.In experiment 2 broilers fed diet based on ideal protein showed better weight gain and feed conversion, but feed intake was not affected. The results showed that broilers fed diet based on ideal protein showed better performance.
Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias alimentados com dietas formuladas nos conceitos de proteína bruta e proteína ideal. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 400 pintos machos de um dia de idade da linhagem Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 2 tratamentos (proteína total e proteína ideal) e 5 repetições de 40 aves cada. No segundo experimento, foram utilizados 800 pintos, 400 machos e 400 fêmeas, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 (2 formulações - proteína bruta e proteína ideal e 2 sexos) com 4 tratamentos e 5 repetições de 40 aves cada. As dietas foram formuladas atendendo às exigências estabelecidas pela DEGUSSA (1997). Aos 21 dias, foram avaliados, o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. No experimento 1, as aves alimentadas com dietas formuladas no conceito de proteína ideal apresentaram maior ganho de peso e maior consumo de ração. No experimento 2, as aves que se alimentaram com a dieta formulada com base da proteína ideal apresentaram melhor ganho de peso e melhor conversão alimentar, não influenciando o consumo de ração. Os resultados demonstraram que as aves alimentadas com dietas baseadas no conceito de proteína ideal apresentam melhor desempenho.
A experiment was conducted to study the addition of dried whole eggs (DWE) in broilers diets from 1 to 28 days of age in two phases (1to 7 and 8 to 28 days). From 1 to 7 days the birds received the diets with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% DWE and from 8 to 28 days of age the birds were assigned in a factorial arrangement 2x5 (2 levels of DWE - 0% and 5% - and the five previous levels). From 1 to 7 days of age birds fed control diet without DWE showed better weight gain and those fed the highest level of DWE showed the worst feed conversion. In the second phase (8 to 28 days) no interaction was found between treatments and also performance, gut weight and gut length were not affected by treatments. The results obtained suggest that the addition of DWE does not results in beneficial effects in broiler diets.
Um experimento foi conduzido para estudar a adição do ovo em pó na dieta de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 28 dias, sendo dividido em duas fases (1 a 7 e 8 a 28 dias). No período de 1 a 7 dias, as aves receberam dietas contendo 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% de ovo em pó e de 8 a 28 dias de idade as aves foram distribuídas em um arranjo fatorial 2x5 (2 níveis de ovo em pó - 0% e 5% - e os 5 níveis da fase anterior). No período de 1 a 7 dias as aves do tratamento controle apresentaram melhor ganho de peso e as aves alimentadas com dietas contendo 20% de ovo em pó apresentaram menor ganho de peso e pior conversão alimentar. As aves deste mesmo tratamento apresentaram também menor peso e comprimento do intestino. Na segunda fase (8 a 28 dias) não houve interação entre os tratamentos estudados. O desempenho, peso e comprimento do intestino não foram afetados pelos tratamentos, ocorrendo apenas maior peso do coração em aves que receberam ovo em pó nesta fase. Os resultados obtidos demonstram ser economicamente inviável a utilização de ovo em pó na dietas de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 28 dias e pela falta de resposta que este ingrediente promove no desempenho da ave.
The object of this experiment was to evaluate the citrus pulp-pelleted (CPP) as a broiler litter and their chemical composition. The experiment used 1792 one day-old males, and it was divided into two phases: 1 to 21 and 35 to 49 days of age. The experimental design was a factorial 2x2x2 with four replicates. The factors were: type of broiler litter (CPP and wood shaving), broiler litter depth (7 and 10 cm) and stocking densities (10 and 14 broilers/m²). The parameters analyzed were: weight gain (WG), feed consumption(FC), feed conversion, incidence of breast blister and foot pad lesion, survivability, dry matter and pH of the broiler litter (21 and 49 days old). To evaluate the possible alteration in the litter chemical composition Weende and van Soest analyses was performed and gross energy was also determined. Independently of depth of litter, the broilers reared on CPP and in the density of 14 broiler/m² showed worse results to WG and FC of 35 to 49 days of age. The results of WG and FC were more affected by the density than the types of broiler litter. There was no significant difference among the treatments for footpad lesion and for lesions of breast blister. The dry matter was higher in CPP than wood shaving. The pH of the broiler litter of CPP was smaller than wood shaving. The chemical analysis showed significant differences due to treatment (p<0.05) for all variables except to mineral matter (MM), with no significant differences between the means. Best values of CP, NDF, ADF were obtained with the CPP used as material for broiler litter.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da polpa de citros peletizada (PCP) como cama de frango, bem como analisar a composição bromatológica desse material. O experimento foi constituído de 1.792 pintos de um dia-machos e dividido em duas fases: 1 a 21 e 35 a 49 dias. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, sendo os fatores tipo de cama: PCP e maravalha x altura de cama: 7 e 10 cm x densidade: 10 e 14aves/m². Foram avaliados os parâmetros: gsnho de peso(GP), consumo de ração (CR), conversão alimentar (CA),viabilidade (V), incidência de lesões no coxim plantar e de calo de peito, matéria seca (MS) e pH da cama aos 21 e 49 dias. Para verificar as possíveis alterações bromatológicas na cama foram feitas análises de Weende e Van Soest, bem como de energia bruta. Independentemente da altura da cama, as aves criadas em PCP numa densidade de 14 aves/m² apresentaram piores resultados de GP e CR no período de 35 a 49 dias. Em geral, os resultados de GP e CR foram mais influenciados pelas densidades do que pelos materiais utilizados. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para ambas as lesões. De uma maneira geral, a MS da cama de PCP foi maior enquanto o pH foi menor quando comparados com a maravalha. Nas análises bromatológicas, observou-se um efeito significativo dos tratamentos para todas as variáveis, com exceção da MM, a qual não apresentou diferença entre as médias (p>0,05). Melhores valores de PB, FDN e FDA foram obtidos com a cama de PCP.