Abstract Enterococcus faecalis are gram positive bacteria that can mostly resist endodontic therapy, inducing persistent infection in the root canal system. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial activity may help eliminate residual microorganisms that survive endodontic treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of Acroseal, Sealapex and AH Plus endodontic sealers in an in vitro biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens (144) were prepared, and twelve blocks for each sealer and each experimental time point (2, 7 and 14 days) were placed and left in contact with plates containing inoculum of E. faecalis (ATCC 51299), to induce biofilm formation. After 14 days, the samples were transferred to another plate with test sealers and kept at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2, 7 and 14 days. The specimens without sealers were used as a control for each period. The samples were agitated in a sonicator after each experiment. The suspensions were agitated in a vortex mixer, serially diluted in saline, and triple plated onto m-Enterococcus agar. Colonyforming units were counted, and the data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis one-way tests (p < 0.05) to determine antimicrobial potential. Sealapex showed significant differences at all the experimental time points, in comparison with all the other groups. AH Plus and Acroseal showed antimicrobial activity only on the 14th experimental day. Neither of the sealers tested were able to completely eliminate the biofilm. Sealapex showed the highest antimicrobial activity in all the experimental periods. The antimicrobial activity of all the sealers analyzed increased over time.
The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of 2 brands of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel. For the in situ experiment, ten volunteers wore palatine devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel over 3 phases, during which 20% sucrose solution, Yakult® (Treatment A), and Batavito® (Treatment B) were dropped on the enamel blocks. Salivary microbial counts were obtained and biofilm samples were analyzed after each phase. For the in vivo experiment, the same ten volunteers drunk Yakult® (Treatment C) and Batavito® (Treatment D) in two phases. Saliva samples were collected for microbial analysis after each phase. The in situ study showed that in comparison with Treatment A, Treatment B resulted in fewer total cultivable anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in biofilms, higher final microhardness, lower percentage change in surface hardness, and smaller integrated subsurface enamel hardness. In the in vivo study, Treatment D resulted in a reduction in the counts of all microorganisms. The results suggested that the probiotic fermented milk Batavito®, but not Yakult®, reduced the amount of oral microorganisms and mineral loss in bovine enamel.
Some manufacturers have recently added specific components to improve the ease of handling and insertion material properties of MTA in order to create MTA-based sealers. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of periapical lesions in canine teeth after a single session of endodontic treatment with MTA Fillapex® compared with Sealapex® or Endo-CPM-Sealer®. Material and Methods Sixty-two root canals were performed on two 1-year-old male dogs. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were exposed to the oral cavity for 6 months in order to induce periapical lesions. The root canals were prepared, irrigated with a solution of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and filled with gutta-percha and different sealers, according to the following groups: 1) Sealapex®; 2) Endo-CPM-Sealer®; and 3) MTA Fillapex®. Some teeth with periapical lesions were left untreated for use as positive controls. Healthy teeth were used as negative controls. After 6 months, the animals were sacrificed and serial sections from the roots were prepared for histomorphologic analysis and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the Brown and Brenn technique. The lesions were scored according to pre-established histomorphologic parameters and the scores statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results All 3 materials produced similar patterns of healing (p>0.05); in particular, persistent inflammation and absence of complete periapical tissue healing were consistently noted. Conclusions Preparation of the infected root canals followed by filling with the materials studied was insufficient to provide complete healing of the periapical tissues.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical sealability of Fillapex®, endo-CPM-Sealer® and Sealapex®. Material and Methods: Ninety-four freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and decoronated. All teeth were radiographed to confirm the existence of a single and straight root canal, which was prepared using Protaper Universal and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were randomly divided in groups of 10 specimens each according to the sealer, and the canals were filled using the single cone technique and one of the sealers. Four additional teeth were used as controls. The teeth were submitted to dye leakage with Rhodamine B for 24 h but using vacuum on the initial 15 min. Thereafter, they were cut longitudinally and the leakage was measured in a linear fashion from apex to crown. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Results: Fillapex® and Sealapex® showed significantly less dye leakage than endo-CPM-Sealer® (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that Fillapex® and Sealapex® were able to prevent apical dye leakage differently from endo-CPM-Sealer®.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the erosive capacity of fermented milk beverages, as well as some of their properties that affect the demineralization of dental enamel (pH, buffering capacity, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus contents). Three different batches of 6 commercial brands of fermented milk beverages were analyzed. pH evaluation was accomplished using a potentiometer. The buffering capacity was measured by adding 1 mol L-1 NaOH. Fluoride concentration was assessed by an ion specific electrode after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion, and calcium and phosphorus concentrations were assessed by a colorimetric test using a spectrophotometer. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 10). They were exposed to 4 cycles of demineralization in the fermented milk and remineralization in artificial saliva. Enamel mineral loss was determined by surface microhardness (%SMHC) and profilometric tests. The samples' pH ranged from 3.51 to 3.87; the buffering capacity ranged from 470.8 to 804.2 µl of 1 mol L-1 NaOH; the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.027 to 0.958 µgF/g; the calcium concentration ranged from 0.4788 to 0.8175 mgCa/g; and the phosphorus concentration ranged from 0.2662 to 0.5043 mgP/g. The %SMHC ranged from -41.0 to -29.4. The enamel wear ranged from 0.15 µm to 0.18 µm. In this in vitro study, the fermented milk beverages did not promote erosion of the dental enamel, but rather only a superficial mineral loss.
The increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil. Material and Methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. Fluoride concentrations were determined by HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (Orion 9409). Results: Fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 µg F/mL. It was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. There was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. Conclusions: Some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration.
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, October 2002 and March 2003. The fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (Orion 9609) connected to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). Samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg F/L. Nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. CONCLUSION: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply.
OBJETIVO: Analisar a concentração de fluoreto da água de abastecimento público do setor abastecido pela Estação de Tratamento de Água de Bauru e classificar as amostras em aceitáveis ou inaceitáveis de acordo com a concentração de flúor. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 238 amostras de 30 bairros em duas etapas, Outubro de 2002 e Março de 2003. A concentração de fluoreto presente nas amostras foi determinada em duplicata, utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609), acoplado ao potenciômetro (Procyon, modelo 720). As amostras com concentração de flúor variando entre 0,55 e 0,84 mg F/L foram consideradas como aceitáveis e aquelas cuja concentração estava fora do intervalo, como inaceitáveis. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: A concentração de fluoreto das amostras de água variou entre 0,31 e 2,01 mg F/L, sendo que cerca de 56% das amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis. CONCLUSÃO: A variação na concentração de fluoreto do setor abastecido pela ETA reforça a importância de um monitoramento constante da fluoretação para a manutenção dos níveis adequados de fluoreto na água de abastecimento.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the fluoride concentration in the public water supply and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years old, living in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this, fifty two water samples were collected on three different days of one week. These samples were analyzed for fluoride by means of the ion-sensitive electrode method (Orion 9609) coupled to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). In this method, 1.0 mL of TISAB II (Orion) was added to 1.0 mL of the sample. For the epidemiological survey of fluorosis, 52 schoolchildren of both genders, aged between 7 and 15 were assessed, with prior authorization from their caretakers. Only one person examined the children, after supervised toothbrushing and drying with cotton wool rolls. The TF index was used. RESULTS: The fluoride concentrations in the water samples ranged from 0.62 to 1.20 mg/L, with a mean of 0.9 mg/L. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33%, with severity ranging from TF1 to TF4 (Kappa of 0.73 and concordance of 83.33%). CONCLUSIONS: The results from the analysis of water samples indicated a fluoride concentration greater than recommended for Bauru. The fluorosis levels found were higher than expected for a peripheral district, in which water is one of the few sources of fluoride.
OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a concentração de flúor na água de abastecimento público e a prevalência de fluorose dentária de escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, residentes em um bairro da periferia de Bauru. MATÉRIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 52 amostras de água durante três dias de uma semana e analisadas utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609), acoplado a um potenciômetro (Procyon, modelo 720), com 1,0 mL da amostra à qual foi adicionado 1,0 mL de TISAB II (Orion). Para o levantamento epidemiológico de fluorose foram examinados 52 escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, mediante a obtenção de autorização prévia dos responsáveis. Somente um examinador realizou os exames após escovação supervisionada e secagem dos dentes com rolos de algodão. O índice utilizado foi o TF, estabelecido a partir do grau máximo verificado em cada indivíduo. RESULTADOS: A concentração de flúor na água variou entre 0,62 e 1,15 mg/L, mantendo uma média de 0,9 mg/L. A prevalência de fluorose dentária verificada foi de 33%, com severidade variando entre TF1 e TF4 (Kappa=0,73 e concordância de 83,33%). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados da análise das amostras de água indicam uma concentração média de flúor acima do recomendado para Bauru. O índice de fluorose dentária verificado foi maior que o esperado para um bairro da periferia, onde a água é uma das poucas fontes de ingestão de flúor.