ABSTRACT Among titanium alloys with non-toxic elements, the Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy has good elastic behavior for applications in osseous implants, biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. The present study aimed to better the biocompatibility characteristics of Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy modifying its surface through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) treatment. The formed oxide coating is amorphous and composed of two distinct porous formations: smaller hole-shaped pores and larger volcano-like pores. The regions with the formation of smaller pores and in the hole shaped presented the highest atomic percentage of the chemical element phosphorus. Nanoindentation tests have shown that the hardness of the Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy is slightly lower than the commercially pure grade 2 titanium (a material used as reference), while elastic modulus measurements of Ti-25Nb-25Ta presented more suitable values for implant application (lower values when compared with titanium reference). After PEO treatment there were significant mechanical surface improvements (increased fairly surface hardness and decreased elastic modulus) for application in osseous tissue. Despite the Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy presented excellent characteristics for applications in hard biological tissues, the PEO treatment better its features.
Titanium and its alloys are biomaterials used in endosseous implants, due to desirable mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Using electrochemical anodization technique these materials can be recovered with self-organized TiO2 nanotubes layer resulting in increased specific surface area and probable bioactivity improvement. This research aimed determine potentiostatic anodization parameters to obtain self-organized TiO2nanotubes layer with reproducibility and ideal diameters for probable bioactive response on Ti - 2 grade (ASTM F67) and Ti6Al4V (ASTM F136) orthopedic alloy and evaluation the electrochemical stability behavior in simulated body fluid media. The self-organized nanotubes layer were obtained by potentiostatic electrochemical method in electrolyte containing fluoride ions, H3PO4/HF for Ti 2 grade and H3PO4/NH4F for Ti6Al4V alloy, the applied potentials were 15 V, 20 V and 25 V for 30, 60 and 90 minutes, for both materials. For morphologic characterization were employed scanning electron microscopy SEM and the Image J software for nanodiameter measurements. The nanoestructure electrochemical stability was evaluated by open circuit potential after immersion for 15, 30 and 60 days in artificial blood plasma, into an electrochemical cell, using SCE (saturated calomel electrode) as reference electrode, in PBS ((phosphate buffered saline) solution electrolyte for 90 minutes. The ideal anodization parameters were 15 V and 20 V for 1 hour and a reproducible, uniform and homogeneous self-organized nanotubes layer were obtained with ideal diameters that probably improve the implant superficial bioactivity with 80 and 120 nm respectively, according to the literature. Open-circuit potentials from metal/oxide system obtained on both materials are stable with potentials in range of -0.031 V to -0,183 V indicating good stability of nanoestructures in simulated body fluid. Nanotubes layer as a superficial treatment is viable with high reproducibility, low cost and electrochemical stability in simulated body fluid media.
Nesse trabalho, apresentamos a caracterização estrutural de regiões soldadas em aço austenítico AISI-304, que foram submetidas a processo de nitretação a plasma (20%N2 + 80%H2). Posteriormente as amostras foram hidrogenadas catodicamente. As temperaturas de nitretação foram de 400, 500 e 550°C. As regiões da solda e fora da solda hidrogenadas após a nitretação foram comparadas por DRX, microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). As fases austenita-γ, martensita-α', martensita-ε, ferrita-α e os nitretos CrN, γ'-Fe4N e e-Fe2+xN foram identificados. As microestruturas de ambas as regiões e da zona termicamente ativada (ZTA) foram similares. Para 400°C, a estequiometria das fases formadas foi diferente das observadas em 500°C e 550°C. Os efeitos provocados pela hidrogenação foram mais acentuados em 550°C, com o arrancamento da camada nitretada.
Structural characterization of weld and outside weld regions of AISI-304 nitrided (20%N + 80%H) and cathodically hydrogenated is presented. Nitriding temperatures were 400, 500 e 550°C. The weld and outside weld regions were compared by XRD, optical microscopy and SEM. The phases γ-austenite, α'-martensite, ε-martensita and α-ferrite and the nitrides: CrN, γ'-Fe4N e e-Fe2+xN were identified. Microstructures of both regions and the thermal active zone were similar. For 400°C the stoichiometry of the formed phases was different from that formed at 500°C and 550°C. Hydrogen effects were more intense for 550°C, due to chipping occurrence.