There are various surface treatments used to modify titanium surfaces to render it bioactive. In this study commercially pure titanium surfaces (cp Ti), grade 2 were modified by acid etching (AE) and anodic oxidation (OA) in order to evaluate the bioactivity in vitro of these surfaces using the simulated body fluid (SBF). The AE was realized using a mixture of acids and AO using 1 mol.L-1 sulfuric acid. The anodic films were obtained under potentiostatic mode, during 60s using as anode a bar of titanium. All the surfaces that means cp Ti, AE and AO were analyzed concerning to morphology, rugosity, structural changes before in vitro bioactivity tests. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that all surfaces presented different morphologies: those with AE showed a surface with peaks and rounded valleys, with Ra = (564±80) nm, the oxidized surfaces with sulfuric acid showed a morphology with small pores uniformly distributed over the surface and Ra = (177±0,02) nm. X-rays diffraction results showed the presence of titanium hydride on the samples with AE and the anatase and rutile phases on the anodic films after heat treatment at 600°C/1h. Bioactivity tests in vitro using SBF at 37°C showed that small aggregates containing Ca and P were observed on surfaces with AE after 30 days soaked in SBF and the surfaces oxidized were fully coated with an apatite layer, identified by SEM.
Osteoblast adhesion on metallic titanium coated with anodic films was evaluated. The anodic oxidation treatment was carried out on commercially pure-titanium (cp-Ti) substrate under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4/150V and 1.0M Na2SO4/100V. Osteoblast cells were cultured onto the samples for 4 hours. The morphologies of both Ti anodic films and cells were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxide films are rough with porous structure. Statistical differences in average surface roughness (Ra) values are found among both anodic films and substrate (abraded cp-Ti), measured by contact profilometry. The oxide films prepared in H2SO4 had greater contact angle, whereas there is no statistical significance between the values for the Ti anodic films produced in Na2SO4 and the substrate surface. Despite the some differences in morphology, roughness and contact angle between the treated and non-treated samples, cell morphologies were similar on all surfaces after 4h of culture. Further, was not clearly observed a correlation between the surface characteristics with cell behavior.