Abstract Among the waste produced daily by communities are those resulting from the treatment of water for public supply, with local specificities that reflect the characteristics and uses of the land. Despite the continuous generation and inadequate disposal still current in Brazil, there is little information on these residues. The data related to the composition of these sludges are essential for the study of alternatives for beneficial uses and for determining the risks to the environment and human health from inadequate disposal. It is in this context that the present study was developed, with the objective of identifying the physical-chemical characteristics of sludge produced in water treatment plants (WTPs) and of verifying the presence of these elements in the waters of the source used for supply. Such research was carried out through a case study in two WTPs in the state of São Paulo that perform surface abstraction. Therefore, in each of the WTPs, samples of densified sludge, representative of the dry and rainy periods, were characterized. The chemical findings of the sludge have been compared to the historical series of a decade of monitoring of the water quality of the sources of these WTPs. Among the main results, concentrations above the reference limits for the inert residues of aluminum, iron, manganese and barium in sludge are highlighted, as well as the existence of iron and manganese in the raw water collected and the variations in the concentrations of iron, sodium and manganese in the sludge due to the climatic conditions.
Resumo Dentre os resíduos cotidianamente produzidos pelas comunidades estão aqueles decorrentes do tratamento das águas para o abastecimento público, com especificidades locais que refletem as características e os usos da terra. A despeito da contínua geração e da disposição inadequada ainda vigente no Brasil, existem poucas informações sobre esses resíduos. Os dados relacionados à composição desses lodos são essenciais para o estudo de alternativas de usos benéficos e para a determinar os riscos ao meio ambiente e à saúde humana da disposição inadequada. É nesse contexto que o presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar as características físico-químicas de lodos produzidos em estações de tratamento de água (ETAs) e de verificar a presença desses elementos nas águas dos mananciais utilizados para o abastecimento. Tal pesquisa foi realizada por meio de estudo de caso em duas ETAs do estado de São Paulo que realizam captação superficial. Para tanto, em cada uma das ETAs foram caracterizadas amostras de lodos adensados, representativas dos períodos seco e chuvoso. Os achados químicos dos lodos foram equiparados à série histórica, de uma década de monitoramento, de qualidade das águas dos mananciais dessas ETAs. Dentre os principais resultados destacam-se as concentrações acima dos limites de referência para os resíduos inertes de alumínio, ferro, manganês e bário em lodos; a existência de ferro e manganês nas águas brutas captadas e a variação das concentrações de ferro, sódio e manganês nos lodos em decorrência da condição climática.
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.
ABSTRACT Objective: Identify yeast species isolated from unexposed, exposed and HIV-carrier children, and verify the effectiveness of low power laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the yeasts species belonging to the Candida genus. Methods: Fifty children assisted by the Public Health Program of the city of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, were selected and divided into three groups: unexposed to HIV, exposed to HIV during pregnancy, and HIV-carrier. Saliva samples were collected in a disposable sterile universal container and were plated to Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 0.1 mg/mL chloramphenicol. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Three strains of each patient were identified by using an API 20 C AUX system. The strains were submitted to photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a 660 nm low power laser and methylene blue dye at different times of irradiation (90, 180 and 282 sec.). Results: The results showed that the most prevalent species was Candida albicans followed by Candida famata (second most prevalent in unexposed to HIV and HIV carriers)) and Candida parapsilosis (second most prevalent in exposed to HIV group). The CFU/mL of Candida spp. decreased significantly (p<0,05) in all groups treated with PDT compared to the controls. Photodynamic therapy treatments at different exposure times (e.g., PS+L90+, PS+L180+, PS+L282+) revealed that the exposure time of 282 sec. gave the highest reduction of the mean logarithmic CFU/mL. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most prevalent Candida species in these three groups and Candida non-albicans species, when combined, amounted to a significant percentage of Candida isolates. Photodynamic therapy was effective in inactivating the Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of children not exposed to HIV, exposed to HIV and HIV-carriers, with the best photodynamic therapy irradiation time being 282 sec.
RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar espécies de leveduras isoladas de crianças não expostas, expostas ao HIV e portadoras de AIDS, e verificar a eficácia da terapia fotodinâmica com laser de baixa potência sobre as espécies de leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida. Métodos: Cinquenta crianças atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde Pública da cidade de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, foram selecionadas e divididas em três grupos: não expostas ao HIV, expostas ao HIV durante a gravidez e portadoras da AIDS. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas em um recipiente universal descartável estéril e foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose suplementado com 0,1 mg / mL de cloranfenicol. As placas foram incubadas a 37°C durante 48h. Três cepas de cada paciente foram identificadas utilizando o sistema API 20 C AUX. As cepas foram submetidas à Terapia Fotodinâmica com laser de baixa potência de 660 nm e corante azul de metileno em diferentes tempos de irradiação (90, 180 e 282 segundos). Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a espécie isolada mais prevalente nos grupos estuddos foi Candida albicans, seguida de Candida famata (segunda mais prevalene nos grupos não expostos ao HIV e com AIDS) e Candida parapsilosis (segunda mais prevalente no grupo exposto ao HIV). Houve diminuição significante de CFU/ml de Candida spp. (p <0,05) em todos os grupos tratados com terapia fotodinâmica, em comparação com os controles. A terapia fotodinâmica, nos diferentes tempos (e.g., PS+L90+, PS+L180+, PS+L282+) mostrou que o tempo de 282 seg. apresentou a maior redução em media de logarítmo de UFC/mL. Conclusão: Candida albicans foi a espécie de Candida mais prevalente isolada nos três grupos e as espécies de Candida não-albicans, quando combinadas, contribuíram com porcentagem significativa dos isolados de Candida. A PDT foi eficaz na inativação de Candida spp. isoladas a partir da cavidade oral de crianças não expostas, expostas ao HIV e portadoras da AIDS, com o melhor tempo de irradiação sendo o de 282 seg.
Abstract Introduction Frequent consumption of sugars and the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are correlated with higher caries experience. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to elucidate the effect of different fermentable carbohydrates on biomass formation and acidogenicity of S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms. Material and method Single and dual-species biofilms of S. mutans ATCC 25175 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 were grown at the bottom of microtiter plates at equal concentrations for 24 h at 37 °C under micro-aerobic atmosphere. Carbohydrates were added at 2% concentration: maltose, sucrose, glucose and lactose. BHI Broth (0.2% glucose) was used as negative control. Acidogenicity was assessed by measuring the pH of spent culture medium after 24 h, immediately after refreshing the culture medium and for the next 1 h and 2 h. Crystal violet staining was used as an indicator of the total attached biofilm biomass after 24 h incubation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. Significance level was set at 5%. Result All carbohydrates resulted in higher biomass formation in single- and dual-species biofilms when compared to the control group. Sucrose, lactose and maltose showed higher acidogenicity than the control group in both single- and dual-species biofilms after 24 h. Conclusion These findings indicate that the type of biofilm (single- or dual-species) and the carbohydrate used may influence the amount of biomass formed and rate of pH reduction.
Resumo Introdução O consumo frequente de açucares e a presença de Streptococcus mutans e Streptococcus sobrinus estão correlacionados com maior experiência de cárie. Objetivo Elucidar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos fermentáveis na biomassa e acidogenicidade de biofilmes formados por S. mutans e S. sobrinus. Material e método Biofilmes única e dupla- espécie de S. mutans ATCC 25175 e S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 em concentrações iguais cresceram no fundo de placas de microtitulação por 24 h a 37 °C em microaerofilia. Maltose, sacarose, glicose e lactose foram adicionados a 2%. BHI caldo (0.2% glicose) foi usado como controle negativo. Acidogenicidade foi avaliada por meio da medição do pH do meio de cultura após 24 h, imediatamente após troca de meio e nas próximas 1 h e 2 h. Coloração por cristal violeta foi usada como indicador do total de biomassa aderida, após 24 h de incubação. Os dados foram analisados por teste ANOVA two way e Teste de Bonferroni. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultado Todos os carboidratos resultaram em maior formação de biomassa em ambos os tipos de biofilme (única ou dupla- espécie), quando comparado ao grupo controle. Sacarose, lactose e maltose mostraram maior acidogenicidade que o grupo controle após 24 h nos biofilmes única ou dupla-espécie, apenas após 24 h. Conclusão Os achados indicam que o tipo de biofilme (única ou dupla- espécie) e o tipo de carboidrato usado podem influenciar tanto na quantidade de biomassa formada quanto na taxa de redução do pH.
A previous study demonstrated that the amount of Candida spp. in saliva is higher in children with sickle-cell disease. The results from a recent study demonstrate its participation in the etiology of dental caries. Objective This study assessed caries-associated virulence (production of acid, extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and metabolic activity) of biofilms from Candida albicans isolated from saliva of patients with sickle-cell anemia in comparison to isolates obtained from matched healthy children. Material and Methods The isolates were previously obtained from 25 children (4-6 years) and their matched controls (healthy children). One isolate of C. albicans per children was used, totaling 25 isolates per group. The C. albicans biofilms were grown for five days and analyzed regarding the production of lactic acid, extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and metabolic activity. The production of lactic acid was determined by the enzymatic method. The concentration of extracellular polysaccharides was determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method, and the concentration of the protein was analyzed using the QuantiPro BCA kit. The XTT reduction was used to verify the metabolic activity. The data were analyzed with GraphPad Prism at 5%. Results The Mean±standard deviation for acid production, extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and metabolic activity of isolates from sickle-cell group was, respectively: 7.1±5.0 mmol/L; 15.6±2.5 μg glucose/mg biofilm; 7,503±3,097 μg/mL; A490 3.5±0.7. For isolates from control group the values obtained were: 3.5±3.3 mmol/L; 12.8±3.4 μg glucose/mg biofilm; 4,995±682 μg/mL; A490 3.4±0.5. The C. albicans isolates from patients with sickle-cell anemia produced a significantly greater quantity of acids (p=0.025), polysaccharides (p=0.025) and proteins (p=0.047) compared with the isolates from control group. However, there was no difference in metabolic activity (XTT) between groups (p=0.750). Conclusion The C. albicans biofilms from patients with sickle-cell anemia presented a greater caries-associated virulence than isolates from healthy children.
Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.
Adherence is considered an extremely important virulence factor in yeast. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the adherence to epithelial cells of C. albicans isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis in comparison to healthy patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Candida albicans cells isolated from individuals with chronic periodontitis (n=25) and healthy controls (n=25) were included in this study. Suspensions of C. albicans (10(6) cells/mL) and epithelial cells (10(5) cells/mL) were mixed and incubated at 37ºC for 1 h. The number of yeasts adhered to 25 epithelial cells was counted. RESULTS: The number of C. albicans cells adhered to epithelial cells was statistically higher in the chronic periodontitis group than in the control group (Student's t-test, p=0.000). CONCLUSION:The results of the present study suggest a higher Candida adherence of samples isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effcacy of auxiliary chemical substances and intracanal medications on Escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were contaminated with a suspension of E. coli for 14 days and divided into 3 groups according to the auxiliary chemical substance used: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CLX); G3) pyrogenfree solution. After, these groups were subdivided according to the intracanal medication (ICM): A) Calcium hydroxide paste (Calen®), B) polymyxin B, and C) Calcium hydroxide paste+2% CLX gel. For the control group (G4), pyrogen-free saline solution was used without application of intracanal medication. Samples of the root canal content were collected immediately after biomechanical preparation (BMP), at 7 days after BMP, after 14 days of intracanal medication activity, and 7 days after removal of intracanal medication. The following aspects were evaluated for all collections: a) antimicrobial activity; b) quantifcation of endotoxin by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL). Results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5% signifcance level. RESULTS: The 2.5% NaOCl and CLX were able to eliminate E. coli from root canal lumen and reduced the amount of endotoxin compared to saline. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that 2.5% NaOCl and CLX were effective in eliminating E. coli. Only the studied intracanal medications were to reduce the amount of endotoxin present in the root canals, regardless of the irrigant used.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among HIV-positive patients. This condition can be treated with either systemic or topical antifungal agents; treatments are usually indicated empirically on the basis of clinical data. The knowledge of in vitro antifungal susceptibility is important to determine correct therapeutic guides for the treatment of fungal infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates from HIV-positive patients and control individuals. Amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, nystatin and ketoconazole were tested according to the methodology of microdilution proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); results were recorded in values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). A total of 71 Candida isolates from HIV-positive patients were examined with the following species represented: C. albicans (59), C. tropicalis (9), C. glabrata (1), C. guilliermondii (1) and C. krusei (1). A total of 15 Candida isolates were evaluated from control individuals comprised of 11 C. albicans and 4 C. tropicalis samples. Our results demonstrated that the tested antifungal agents showed good activity for most isolates from both groups; however, variability in MIC values among isolates was observed.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2% peracetic acid for the disinfection of gutta-percha cones contaminated in vitro with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilus (in spore form). Two hundred and twenty-five gutta-percha cones were contaminated with standardized suspensions of each microorganism and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The cones were divided into 10 experimental groups (n = 15), according to the microorganism tested and disinfection testing times. The disinfection procedure consisted of immersing each cone in a plastic tube containing the substance. The specimens remained in contact with the substance for 1 or 2.5 minutes. Afterwards, each cone was transferred to a 10% sodium thiosulphate solution (Na2S2O3) to neutralize the disinfectant. Microbial biofilms adhering to the cones were dispersed by agitation. Aliquots of 0.1 ml of the suspensions obtained were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, or brain and heart infusion agar, and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU/ml) and the data were submitted to the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (level of significance at 0.05). A significant reduction was observed, after 1 minute of exposure, in the test solution for C. albicans (p = 0.0190), S. aureus (p = 0.0001), S. mutans (p = 0.0001), B. subtilis (p = 0.0001), and E. coli (p = 0.0001). After 2.5 minutes of exposure, 100% of the microbial inocula were eliminated. It was concluded that the 2% peracetic acid solution was effective against the biofilms of the tested microorganisms on gutta-percha cones at 1 minute of exposure.
Candida spp. can lead to infections or even fungal sepsis particularly among immunocompromized individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the presence of Candida spp. among patients subjected to orthotopic heart transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oral rinses from 50 patients subjected to orthotopic heart transplantation, aged 13 to 70 years, 40 males and 10 females, were examined. Sex-age-oral conditions matched-control included 50 individuals who were not subjected to any kind of transplantation and were not immunocompromized for any other reason. Counts of yeasts were expressed as median values of logarithm of cfu/mL and were statistically compared by Mann-Whitney's test. The heart transplant and control groups were compared for the presence of Candida spp. by chi-square test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001) in the prevalence of Candida spp. between the transplantation and control groups. Counts of yeasts (cfu/mL) in the transplanted group were significantly higher than in the control group (p=0.005). Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated from both groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that Candida yeast counts were higher in the heart transplant recipients than in the controls. There was higher variation of Candida species among the heart transplant patients and the most frequently isolated samples were: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Isolates of Candida dubliniensis was not found in either of the groups.
The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10), according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%). The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with an intracanal medication against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six human single-rooted teeth with single root canals were used. The canals were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days and were then instrumented with 1% NaOCl. The roots were divided into 3 groups (n=12) according to the intracanal medication applied: calcium hydroxide paste, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and 2% CHX gel associated with calcium hydroxide. The following collections were made from the root canals: a) initial sample (IS): 21 days after contamination (control), b) S1: after instrumentation, c) S2: 14 days after intracanal medication placement; S3: 7 days after intracanal medication removal. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Both 1% NaOCl irrigation and the intracanal medications were effective in eliminating E. faecalis and C. albicans inoculated in root canals.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux). RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001) and non-smokers (p=0.0485). CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures.