Dent's disease type 1 is an X-linked tubular disease caused by mutations in the renal chloride channel CLCN-5, and it is characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal failure. Several cases have been described in which the only presenting symptoms were asymptomatic proteinuria, and focal segmental or global glomerulosclerosis. The renal failure in these patients may be caused by hypercalciuria and persistent proteinuria. Therefore, angiotensin converse enzyme inhibitor and thiazides could be useful. Our aim is to report the effects of these drugs in two novel mutations patients with Dent's disease type 1. In this report, no significant correlations between dosage of hydrochlorothiazide and calciuria and no significant correlations between proteinuria and dosage of enalapril were detected. This is important since these are polyuric patients and these drugs could be dangerous to their renal function.
A doença de Dent é uma tubulopatia ligada ao X causada por mutações no gene que codifica o canal de cloro CLCN-5 e é caracterizada por proteinúria de baixo peso molecular, hipercalciúria, nefrocalcinose e insuficiência renal. Vários casos têm sido descritos, nos quais o único sintoma na apresentação foi proteinúria assintomática e glomerulosclerose global ou segmentar. A insuficiência renal nesses pacientes pode ser causada pela hipercalciúria e proteinúria persistente. Portanto, o inibidor da enzima de conversão da angiotensina e os tiazídicos poderiam ser úteis. O objetivo desta pesquisa é relatar os efeitos destas drogas em dois pacientes com doença de Dent tipo 1 com mutações novas. Neste relato não foram observadas correlações significativas entre dose de hidroclorotiazida e calciúria e entre enalapril e proteinúria. Este achado é importante, pois, sendo pacientes poliúricos, o uso destas drogas poderia prejudicar a função renal
INTRODUCTION: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a lack of response in the distal nephron to the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin. Manifestations include polyuria, polydipsia, hyposthenuria, recurrent episodes of dehydration and fever and growth failure. Most cases are caused by mutations in the AVPR2 gene. The mutant receptors are trapped intracellularly. METHOD: We studied five boys using clinical, laboratory and molecular data. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.6 months (range 6 to 24) and 12.2 years (7.8 to 19) after the follow-up period. The mean period of follow-up was 132.2 ± 50.9 months. RESULTS: The geometric means of the z-scores of weight and stature were -4.5 and -3.6, respectively, at diagnosis. At the last medical appointment, the z-scores of weight and stature were -0.3 and -0.9, respectively. Three patients were diagnosed with ureterohydronephrosis and exhibited increased post-void urine volume. Mutations in the AVPR2 gene were found in all patients, and the carrier status was confirmed in four of five cases. Two unrelated children presented identical mutations (S167L) in arginine vasopressin R2. Two of the patients had a mutation that has already been described in other Brazilian families (R337X), and one patient showed a de novo mutation (Y128D) in arginine vasopressin R2, since his mother's molecular analysis was normal. The recurrence risk for this family was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: This study reports the clinical and laboratory characterization of Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and reiterates the importance of the genetic basis that underlies the disease diagnosis and genetic counseling.