OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever o manejo do pré-natal e do parto em pacientes portadoras de hepatite autoimune associada à plaquetopenia moderada ou grave. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho foi realizado em hospital universitário, de nível terciário. Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, 13 gestações em dez pacientes com diagnóstico de hepatite autoimune complicadas pela plaquetopenia. Os critérios de inclusão foram: diagnóstico clínico de hepatite autoimune, plaquetopenia moderada ou grave (contagem de plaquetas < 100 x 103/mm3), idade gestacional ao nascimento acima de 22 semanas e pacientes acompanhadas por equipe especializada da instituição. As variáveis estudadas incluíram idade materna, paridade, os regimes de tratamento, contagem de plaquetas, exames para investigação da função hepática, tipo de parto, peso ao nascer e idade gestacional no momento do parto. RESULTADOS: A média da idade materna foi de 24,5 anos (DP = 5,3) e seis (50%) ocorreram em nulíparas. Durante a gravidez, a monoterapia com prednisona foi adotada em 11 (92%) casos. De acordo com o perfil de autoanticorpos, sete (58%) gestações possuíam diagnóstico de hepatite autoimune tipo I, duas (17%) do tipo II e três (25%) eram portadoras de hepatite crônica criptogênica (títulos de autoanticorpos indetectáveis). A hipertensão portal foi caracterizada em 11 (92%) gestações. A idade gestacional média no parto foi de 36,9 semanas (DP = 1,5 semana), com média de peso ao nascer de 2446g (DP = 655g), sendo oito (67%) pequenos para a idade gestacional. No momento do parto, a plaquetopenia grave foi caracterizada em quatro (33%) casos e a cesárea foi realizada em sete (58%). As complicações no parto ocorreram em três casos (25%), uma paciente apresentou atonia uterina e duas, hematoma perineal. Não houve morte materna ou perinatal. CONCLUSÃO: As complicações em pacientes plaquetopênicas com hepatite autoimune são elevadas, no entanto, com os cuidados e atenção necessários, podem ser contornáveis. A associação de duas patologias graves parece aumentar o risco de prematuridade e restrição do crescimento fetal, demandando atenção pré-natal especializada, bem como vigilância do bem-estar do concepto.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the management of prenatal care and delivery in patients bearing autoimmune hepatitis associated with moderate or severe thrombocytopenia. METHODS: This study was performed in a tertiary level university hospital. Thirteen pregnancies in ten patients diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis, complicated by thrombocytopenia, were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion criteria were as follows: clinical diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis, moderate or severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 x 103/mm3), gestational age at birth over 22 weeks, and patient followed-up by a specialized team at the institution. The variables studied were: maternal age, parity, treatment regimen, platelet count, examinations for investigation of hepatic function, type of delivery, weight at birth, and gestational age at the time of delivery. RESULTS: The average maternal age was 24.5 years (SD = 5.3) and six (50%) occurred in nulliparous women. During pregnancy, monotherapy with prednisone was adopted in 11 cases (92%). According to the autoantibody profiles, seven pregnancies (58%) had the autoimmune hepatitis type I diagnosis, two pregnancies had type II (17%), and three pregnancies (25%) had cryptogenic chronic hepatitis (undetectable titers of autoantibodies). Portal hypertension was featured in 11 pregnancies (92%). The average gestational age at delivery was 36.9 weeks (SD = 1.5 weeks), with an average weight at birth of 2,446 g (SD = 655 g). Eight infants (67%) were small for gestational age. At the time of delivery, severe thrombocytopenia was featured in four cases (33%) and cesarean surgery was performed in seven cases (58%). Complications at delivery occurred in three cases (25%), one patient presented uterine atony, and two patients presented perineal bruising. There was no perinatal or maternal death. CONCLUSION: The complications of thrombocytopenic patients with autoimmune hepatitis are elevated; nevertheless, with appropriate attention and care, they can be resolved. The association between two severe pathologies appears to increase the risk of prematurity and fetal growth restriction, demanding specialized prenatal care, as well as surveillance of newborn well-being.
OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males) with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 - 240 months). The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 - 18 years). Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far.