Objective: to verify the influence of social relations on the survival of older adults living in southern Brazil. Method: a cohort study (2008 and 2016/17), conducted with 1,593 individuals aged 60 years old or over, in individual interviews. The outcomes of social relations and survival were verified by Multiple Correspondence Analysis, which guided the proposal of an explanatory matrix for social relations, the analysis of survival by Kaplan-Meier, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression to verify the association between the independent variables. Results: follow-up was carried out with 82.5% (n=1,314), with 46.1% being followed up in 2016/17 (n=735) and 579 deaths (36.4%). The older adults who went out of their homes daily had a 39% reduction in mortality, and going to parties kept the protective effect of 17% for survival. The lower risk of death for women is modified when the older adults live in households with two or more people, in this case women have an 89% higher risk of death than men. Conclusion: strengthened social relationships play a mediating role in survival. The findings made it possible to verify the importance of going out of the house as a marker of protection for survival.
Objetivo: verificar la influencia de las relaciones sociales en la supervivencia de adultos mayores residentes en el sur de Brasil. Método: estudio de cohorte (2008 y 2016/17), realizado con 1.593 individuos de 60 años o más, en entrevistas individuales. Los resultados de las relaciones sociales y la supervivencia se verificaron mediante Análisis de Correspondencias Múltiples que guio la proposición de una matriz explicativa de las relaciones sociales y el análisis de supervivencia por Kaplan-Meier y el análisis multivariado por regresión de Cox para verificar la asociación entre variables independientes. Resultados: el seguimiento se llevó a cabo con el 82,5% (n=1.314), siendo que en 46,1% el seguimiento se practicó entre 2016/17 (n=735) y se registraron 579 óbitos (36,4%). El adulto mayor que salió de casa a diario tuvo una reducción del 39% en la mortalidad y el hecho de ir a fiestas mantuvo el efecto protector del 17% en la supervivencia. El menor riesgo de muerte para las mujeres se modifica cuando los adultos mayores viven en domicilios con dos o más personas, en este caso las mujeres presentan un riesgo de muerte 89% más alto que los hombres. Conclusión: el fortalecimiento de las relaciones sociales ejerce un papel mediador en la supervivencia. Los hallazgos permitieron comprobar la importancia de salir de casa como marcador de protección en la supervivencia.
Objetivo: verificar a influência das relações sociais na sobrevivência de idosos residentes no sul do Brasil. Método: estudo de coorte (2008 e 2016/17), realizado com 1.593 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais, em entrevistas individuais. Os desfechos relações sociais e sobrevivência foram verificados por Análise de Correspondências Múltiplas que orientou a proposição de matriz explanatória para relações sociais e a análise de sobrevivência por Kaplan-Meier e análise multivariada por regressão de Cox para verificar a associação entre as variáveis independentes. Resultados: o acompanhamento foi realizado com 82,5% (n=1.314), sendo 46,1% acompanhados em 2016/17 (n=735) e 579 óbitos (36,4%). O idoso que saiu de casa diariamente teve uma redução de 39% na mortalidade e ir a festas manteve o efeito protetor de 17% para sobrevivência. O menor risco de morte para as mulheres é modificado quando os idosos vivem em domicílios com duas ou mais pessoas, neste caso as mulheres apresentam risco 89% maior de morte do que os homens. Conclusão: relações sociais fortalecidas exercem papel mediador na sobrevivência. Os achados permitiram verificar a importância de sair de casa como marcador de proteção para a sobrevivência.
ABSTRACT The effect of fine wheat bran (FWB) as a methyl donor source on performance, metabolism, body composition and blood traits of growing broilers was studied. Three hundred and twenty broilers from eight to 28 d of age, distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and eight replicates of eight animals each were used. The experimental diets were: NC, formulated with 72% of the Met+Cys requirement; Met, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys equivalents by DL-methionine addition; Bet, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys equivalents by anhydrous betaine addition; Fwb-, formulated with 72% of the Met+Cys requirement and 20% FWB; and Fwb+, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys requirement and 20% FWB. Feed intake was reduced (p<0.05) by FWB inclusion but the feed conversion ratio was the same (p>0.05) between the positive control diets. Supplementation of DL-methionine and anhydrous betaine showed the same (p>0.05) metabolizability of nutrients. Treatments with higher DL-methionine levels (Met and Fwb+) promoted more weight of feathers (p<0.05). Animals fed with FWB showed the lowest (p<0.05) body gains. In conclusion, FWB inclusion did not promote methyl radicals supply.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of an enzyme blend (EB) on the performance, diet metabolizability, phosphorus (P) retention, and bone mineralization of broilers fed diets containing 10% defatted rice bran (DRB). In total, 432 one- to 38-d-old male Cobb broilers were evaluated according to a completely randomized experimental design in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. Three diets were tested with two nutrient reductions (NR) in the matrix (standard diet; NR I of 75 kcal/kg ME, 0.1% Ca and 0.1% available P; and NR II of 100 kcal/kg ME, 0.1% Ca and 0.1% available P) with or without the addition of an EB (200 g/t). The coefficients of total tract apparent retention (CTTAR) of the diets and P retention were determined by collecting excreta during two periods (14 to 17 and 28 to 31 d). As expected, birds fed the standard diet had higher BW, BW gain, and G:F compared to birds on the NR diets. The EB did not show any positive effects on CTTAR or on performance; however, birds fed the EB retained 6.58% more P from d 14 to 17 (p ≤ 0.07) and 8.55% from d 28 to 31 (p < 0.05). Tibiotarsus ash percentage also increased by 2.45% (p ≤ 0.06) on d 38. In diets containing 10% DRB, the enzyme blend showed biological activity improving P retention and tibiotarsus mineralization.
Two experiments were simultaneously carried out to compare feed formulation models: a linear model for minimum cost with a nonlinear model for maximum profitability for one-to 42-d-old broilers. One-d-old male or female Cobb 500 broilers (n=2368) were allocated to one of the two trials according to sex. The experiments were performed simultaneously in an experimental poultry farm. Two housing densities were used: high density (HDH), with 14 birds/m2, and low density (LDH), with 10 birds/m2. The following treatments were evaluated: linear feed formulation and LDH (LF10); nonlinear formulation and LDH (NF10); linear formulation and HDH (LF14); and nonlinear formulation and HDH (NF14). A completely randomized design with four treatments of eight replicates each was applied. Performance and cost per kg of poultry were evaluated. Both formulation systems promoted similar broiler performance. However, the high-density feed using linear formulation reduced body weight in 42-d-old males, but not when nonlinear formulation was used. The NF10 treatment yielded the worst feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) and the lowest cost/kg broiler (p<0.05) for both sexes. The results demonstrate that the nutritional program that yields the best performance is not always the most economical one.
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on the performance and energy balance of broiler chickens of a fast-growing strain (Cobb500) and a slow-growing strain (Label Rokens during the period of 1 one to 42 days of used In total, 360 male broilers (240 fast-grorain and 120 slow-grtrain)were, housed in collective cages. A completely randomized experimental dewith in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of three groups of birds (slow-growing - SG; fast-growing fed ad libitum - FGAL; and fast-growing pair-fed with SG broilers - FGPF) and two iso-protein dis (a 3100 kcal ME/kg low-fiber diet and a 2800 kcal ME/kg high-fiber diet- Hwith containing 14% wheat bran and 4% oat hulls). Dietary fiber level did not affect feed intake (FI); however, it resulted in lower weight gain (WG) and worse feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p < 0.001) in birds fed the HFD diet due to its lower energy content. The FGPF group presented higher WG than SG and better FCR (p < 0.001), indicating that fast-growing birds present better performance than SG broilers, even under restricted feed intake. The SG group retained more energy relative to body weight (p < 0.001), which is associated to higher body fat retention in this strain (p < 0.001). The slow-growing strain did not present better use of high-fiber diet than fast-growing strain as expected.
The objective of the experiment was to determine the Apparent Metabolizable Energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) of a glycerin product derived from biodiesel production for broilers. A number of 35 male Ross 308 broilers, with 35 days of age was fed ad libitum diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% glycerin. AMEn was determined using total excreta collection, with four days of adaptation and three days of collection. Increasing glycerin intakes resulted in increased water excretion. Glycerin AMEn varied as a function of dietary inclusion levels, and a cubic equation was identified by regression analysis. Maximum AMEn level- 4890 kcal/kg DM- was obtained with 15% glycerin inclusion. However, this level caused excessive water excretion, making its use unpractical.
In this study, Hisex Brown layers in lay were evaluated between 40 and 44 weeks of age to evaluate the inclusion of bacterial phytase (Ph) and sodium butyrate (SB) to diets containing different calcium levels (CaL). Performance, average egg weight and eggshell percentage, in addition to nutrient metabolizability and Ca and P balance were evaluated for 28 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with three calcium levels (2.8, 3.3, 3.8%); the addition or not of phytase (500PhU/kg) and the addition or not of sodium butyrate (20mEq/kg), composing 12 treatments with eight replicates of one bird each. There was no additive effect of phytase or SB on the evaluated responses. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced by CaL, with the best performance obtained with 3.3% dietary Ca. Ca balance was positively affected by dietary Ca, and P balance by the addition of phytase. Ca dietary concentration, estimated to obtain Ca body balance, was 3.41%, corresponding to an apparent retention of 59.9% of Ca intake.
Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and dry matter (DMM), crude protein (CPM), and crude fat (CFM) metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS), acid soybean oil (ASO), or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO). Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with vitamins C and E and organic minerals Zn and Se on the performance of 1 to 35 day-old broilers from, kept under cyclic heat stress (25 to 32ºC). Four levels of vitamin-mineral supplementation were used (T1-control diet (60/30 IU of vit E for starter and growing diet, respectively, zero vit. C, 80 ppm of inorganic Zn, 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se); T2-control diet + 100 UI vit E and 300 ppm vit C/kg; T3-control diet + 40 ppm Zn and 0,3 ppm Se/kg; T4-control diet + T2 and T3 levels) and two environments - thermoneutral and cyclic heat stress (TN and HS) from 14 to 35 days of age. In the period when part of the birds was submitted to HS, from 14 to 35 days, it was observed lower feed intake (FI) and better feed conversion (FC) for HS birds receiving supplementation compared to the group without supplementation. Evaluating the total period, all the types of supplementation provided lower FI and better FC than the control treatment, but not affected weight gain (WG). The supplementation of vitamins C and E and/or organic minerals Zn and Se improved the performance of birds due to a lower FI resulting in better FC, independently on the environment.
This experiment aimed at verifying the effect of different diets and thermal environments on the performance, carcass yield, and diet digestibility of 21 to 42-day-old broilers. A total number of 288 21-day-old male Ross broilers were distributed in a 2 x 2 + 2 factorial arrangement, with six replicates, including the following factors: two environments (TNE - thermoneutral: 21-25ºC and 73% RH; CHS - cyclic heat stress: 25-32ºC and 65%RH), and two diets (control: 2.4% soybean oil and 19.5% protein; summer: 4.0% soybean oil and 18.5% protein). In TNE, two additional treatments were included with feed restriction of birds fed both the control and summer diets (pair-feeding), thereby maintaining the same feed intake level for both types of diet. Diet did not influence performance, dry matter and protein digestibilities, or carcass and part yields. TNE birds had better performance (p<0.001) as compared to CHS birds, but FCR was not different. CHS birds had lower breast yield (p<0.0001), and higher thigh yield (p<0.02) than TNE birds. In the pair-feeding treatments, environment did not influence performance, but dry matter digestibility was significantly lower in CHS (p<0.03), whereas protein digestibility was not affected. The difference in feed intake was the main responsible factor for the variation in the performance of heat-stressed birds.
The supplementation of vegetal diets with L-methionine (100% molar), methionine hydroxyl analogue (HMB) (88% molar) or DL-methionine (99% molar) was compared as to the performance of broilers allocated in cages and submitted to cyclic heat stress (CHS). The trial was carried out from 21 to 42 days of age. Two levels of synthetic methionine were supplemented for each methionine source (0.1 or 0.3 %), and the control treatment was not supplemented with synthetic methionine (negative control). Statistical analyses included the negative control treatment or were performed in a 3 x 2 factorial design (sources x levels). Addition of synthetic methionine to the basal level containing 0.63 % of total sulphur amino acids significantly improved feed conversion (FC) independent of the source. On the other hand, improvements in weight gain (WG) and body weight (BW) were more consistent comparing the negative control to HMB-supplemented treatments. Factorial analysis showed better FC for L-Met compared to DL-Met, whereas HMB showed intermediate results. The supplementation level of 0.3% methionine showed better FC than 0.1%. Methionine levels or sources had no effects on carcass, yields of cuts or feathering results. Therefore, results of DL-Met and HMB added to vegetal-based diets in comparable molar terms promoted similar performance in broilers under CHS conditions.
We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA), two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg) and two physical forms (mash or pellet) on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001) and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001). Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001), higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001) and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001) as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001), higher weight gain (p<0.001), better feed conversion (p<0.001), better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001) and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001). The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.
An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross) was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46%) and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl) (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg) in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.
This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and carcass and breast yields of broilers fed two different energy levels (3,200 or 2,900 kcal ME/kg) and two ways of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA) between 21 and 42 days of age. The results showed that broilers fed the diet containing 3,200 kcal ME/kg had higher weight gain (P=0.015), better feed conversion (P=0.001), and higher abdominal fat deposition (P=0.001) as compared to those fed the diet containing 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Diets formulated on DAA basis promoted higher weight gain (P=0.043), better feed conversion (P=0.010) and better conversion of ME intake into weight gain (P=0.007) as compared to those formulated on TAA basis. The results of this study suggest that formulation based on DAA is necessary if the diets contain protein sources that are not reliable in terms of amino acid digestibility. The response to formulation based on DAA was minimized when birds received the low energy level diet (2,900 kcal ME/kg).