Abstract This study was designed to determine the in vivo performance of three different materials as scaffolds for dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) undergoing induced odontogenic differentiation. An odontogenic medium modified by the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 was used in the experimental groups to induce differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cell medium was used in the control groups. DPSC were transplanted onto the backs of mice via three scaffolds: copolymer of L-lactide and DL-lactide (PLDL), copolymer of DL-lactide (PDL) and hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP). The expression levels of dentin sialo-phosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), enamelysin/matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on X chromosome (PHEX) were analysed using RT-PCR. The expressions in the experimental groups were compared to those in the control groups. The transcript expressions at 6 and 12 weeks were significantly different for all scaffolds (p < 0.05), except for the expression of DSPP in the PLDL group with regard to the time variable. Although there was a decrease in the expression of enamelysin/MMP20 in PLDL and HA/TCP at 12 weeks, all other expressions increased and reached their highest level at 12 weeks. The highest DSPP expression was in the PDL group (p < 0.05). The highest expression of DMP1 was detected in the HA/TCP group (p < 0.05). The highest expression of PHEX was in the PLDL group (p < 0.05). Consequently, PLDL and PDL seemed to be promising scaffold candidates for odontogenic regeneration at least as HA-TCP, when they were applied with the DPSC induced for odontogenic differentiation.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate whether medium modification improves the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in vitro and in vivo. DPSC isolated from human impacted third molar teeth were analysed for clusters of differentiation with flow cytometry. Odontogenic differentiation was stimulated by medium modification with the addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). The expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, enamelysin/matrix metalloproteinase 20 and the phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome of the cells were analysed with RT-PCR at 7, 14 and 21 days. Then, DPSC were transplanted on the back of immunocompromised mice via a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate scaffold, and the structure of the formed tissue was investigated. The cells were identified as mesenchymal stem cells with a 98.3% CD73 and CD90 double-positive cell rate. The increase in mineralization capacity and expression of human enamel-dentin specific transcripts proportional to the culture period were determined after differentiation. Six weeks after transplantation, an osteo-dentin matrix was formed in the group in which odontogenic differentiation was stimulated, and the odontogenic characteristics of the matrix were confirmed by histological examination and RT-PCR analysis. Odontogenic differentiation of the isolated and characterized human DPSC was improved with medium modification by the addition of BMP2 in vitro and in vivo. The defined medium and applied technique have a potential use for forming reparative dentin in the future, but the effects of the method should be investigated in long-term studies.