Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the temperature changes that occurred in the pulp chamber when using GCP Glass Carbomer Fill (GCP) and two different resin-modified glass-ionomer (RGI) restorative materials at different dentin thicknesses. A standardized Class I occlusal cavity with 1 mm or 2 mm dentin thickness was prepared in the extracted human molar teeth. RGI and GCP fills were placed in the cavities and cured with two different light-curing units. This study included a total of 120 samples, with 20 samples in each group. The pulp microcirculation method was used for measuring the intrapulpal temperature changes. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD multiple comparison tests. Statistically significant differences were observed between 1 mm and 2 mm dentin thicknesses (p < 0.001). The GCP groups (both 1 mm and 2 mm dentin thicknesses) exhibited higher temperatures than the other groups (p < 0.001), and Fuji II LC and Photac Fil Quick Aplicap showed similar values (p > 0.05). The highest temperature changes were observed with 1 mm dentin thickness. While RGI materials in both dentin thicknesses did not cause temperature changes that were harmful to the pulp, GCP CarboLED LCU caused the highest intrapulpal temperature rise, and these values were borderline harmful to the dental pulp.