ABSTRACT For computerized analysis of respiratory sounds to be effective, the acquired signal must be free from all the interfering elements. Different forms of noise which can degrade the quality of lung sounds are recording artifacts, power line/Radio Frequency (RF) interferences, ambient acoustic interferences, heart sound interference etc. Such interferences adversely affect the diagnostic interpretations. Powerful denoising techniques are necessary to resolve this issue. A denoising scheme for lung sounds, based on Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter is proposed in this paper. The order and frame length of the SG filter is determined objectively using the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and computational time as objective function. Maximum SNR is observed when the frame length is nearest to the value just higher than the polynomial order. This observation holds good for different levels of simulated addictive Gaussian noise. The polynomial order of 8 and frame size of 9 are found to be promising with SNR of 10.401db at computation time of 2.1ms.
In the present study, rapid reduction and stabilization of Ag+ ions with different NaOH molar concentration (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) has been carried out in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate by the bio waste peel extract of P.granatum. Generally, chemical methods used for the synthesis of AgNPs are quite toxic, flammable and have adverse effect in medical application but green synthesis is a better option due to eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and safe for human. Stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating 90 mL aqueous solution of 2 mM AgNO3 with the 5 mL plant peels extract (0.4% w/v) at different NaOH concentration (5 mL). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM. Further, antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were performed on Gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Gram negative i.e. E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The AgNPs synthesized at 1.5 mM NaOH concentration had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) i.e. 49 ± 0.64 in E. coli, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilius had shown 40 ± 0.29 mm, 28 ± 0.13 and 42 ± 0.49 mm ZOI respectively. The MIC value of 30 g/mL observed for E. coli Whereas, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had shown 45 µg/mL, 38 µg/mL, 35 µg/mL respectively. The study revealed that AgNPs had shown significant antimicrobial activity as compared to Streptomycin.
Nine colonies of five sibling species members of Anopheles barbirostris complexes were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. They were then dissected eight and 14 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively, and compared with Anopheles cracens. The results revealed that Anopheles campestris-like Forms E (Chiang Mai) and F (Udon Thani) as well as An. barbirostris species A3 and A4 were non-potential vectors for P. falciparum because 0% oocyst rates were obtained, in comparison to the 86.67-100% oocyst rates recovered from An. cracens. Likewise, An. campestris-like Forms E (Sa Kaeo) and F (Ayuttaya), as well as An. barbirostris species A4, were non-potential vectors for P. vivax because 0% sporozoite rates were obtained, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. barbirostris species A1, A2 and A3 were low potential vectors for P. vivax because 9.09%, 6.67% and 11.76% sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. campestris-like Forms B and E (Chiang Mai) were high-potential vectors for P. vivax because 66.67% and 64.29% sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to 90% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens.