Abstract The importance of functional foods added with probiotics and prebiotics is directly related with the promotion of the health benefits of human. In this study the survival of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in a semi-ripened cheese added with agave juice, was determined. Cheese ripening was carried out at 14 °C for 35 days. The pH changes were measured and the hydrolysis of the protein was evaluated through the analysis of free amino groups by the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) method and SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At the end of the study, in the symbiotic cheese, the viability of the probotic was increased in two logarithmic cycles (from 6.73 to 8.72 log CFU). A more active proteolytic process was observed with the addition of agave juice, due to the high production of low molecular weight peptides and the concentration of free amino groups (8.63 mg/L). The pH did not have a significant difference between the control and the cheese studied. With the obtained results, it is seen that agave juice is an ingredient that can be added to semi ripening cheeses with the objective of improving the survival capacity of probiotic microorganisms, which are used as starters.
Abstract The health benefits attributed to probiotics generate interest in the search of competent strains adapted to several ecological niches, especially those related to traditional beverages and foods of each country. Pineapple tepache, a traditional Mexican fermented beverage, was used for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential, one of which withstood the in vitro tests. The isolated strain AB-05, which exhibited the tested probiotic functional properties, was designated as Lactobacillus pentosus ABHEAU-05. The sequence was registered in GenBank under access code MK587617. This study is the first report of a lactic acid bacterium with in vitro digestion resistance isolated from pineapple tepache. The survival of L. pentosus ABHEAU-05 in a symbiotic medium was proven using fermented milk enriched with inulin. The in vitro digestion-resistant probiotic activity of lactobacilli was measured through analysis of pH and proteolysis. Results showed that L. pentosus grew properly in fermented milk; therefore, this microorganism could be used in the manufacture of this kind of products. The concentration of L. pentosus reached up to 8.5 logCFU/ml after 40 h of fermentation. In addition, the production of peptides and the decrease in pH indicated the vigorous and active metabolic state of the lactic acid bacterium tested. The activity and the concentration of this microorganism were maintained during refrigeration. The results of this research conclude that L. plantarum ABHEAU-05 is an in vitro digestion-resistant microorganism that can be used as a starter culture for the production of functional foods of dairy origin.
Resumen Los beneficios a la salud atribuidos a los probióticos generan interés en la búsqueda de cepas competentes adaptadas a varios nichos ecológicos, especialmente los relacionados con bebidas y alimentos tradicionales de cada país. En este estudio, se aisló del tepache de pina, una bebida fermentada tradicional mexicana, una bacteria láctica resistente a la digestión in vitro. Entre 5 bacterias aisladas, una de ellas soportó las pruebas simuladas de digestión gastrointestinal. Se analizó la resistencia a sales biliares, a condiciones ácidas y al ataque enz-imático con pepsina. La bacteria aislada, que exhibió las propiedades funcionales probióticas referidas, fue identificada como Lactobacillus pentosus y designada como L. pentosus ABHEAU-05. La secuencia fue depositada en GenBank (acceso MK587617). Se comprobó la supervivencia de L. pentosus ABHEAU-05 en una leche fermentada adicionada con inulina y su resistencia a la digestión in vitro mediante el análisis del pH y la proteólisis. Los resultados muestran que la leche fermentada es una matriz adecuada, donde L. pentosus ABHEAU-05 se desarrolla sin inconvenientes, alcanzando un título de 8,5 logufc/ml después de 40 h de fermentación. Además, la producción de péptidos y el descenso del pH indicaron el estado metabólico vigoroso y activo del microorganismo probiótico. Se concluye que L. pentosus ABHEAU-05 es un microorganismo resistente a la digestión in vitro, que puede servir como cultivo iniciador para la producción de alimentos de origen lácteo. Este es el primer informe acerca del aislamiento de una bacteria ácido láctica resistente a la digestión in vitro a partir del tepache de piña.
Abstract In food systems, lipid oxidation is one of the most important factors affecting food quality, nutrition, safety, color and consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetic parameters of lipid oxidation and its influence in the shelf life of third generation (3G) snacks stored in three types of packaging (polyethylene, polypropylene + Kraft paper, and polyethylene + polypropylene) at 25 °C and 40 °C. The peroxide value was the quality parameter selected and monitored for a 60 day period using a spectrophotometric technique. Based on the Arrhenius equation and activated complex theory, reaction rate constants (k), activation energies (Ea), Q10 factors, activation enthalpies (∆H‡), and activation entropies (∆S‡ ) for oxidative stability in 3G snacks were calculated. Results showed that oxidation phenomena can occur in the 3G snacks and affect its shelf-life. Packaging C (polyethylene + polypropylene) was the most appropriate for the storage of this kind of product. Finally, the shelf life of the analyzed pellets was longer than one year at 25 °C and it may be extended with the appropriate mix of packaging materials.
Abstract In this study, the survival and proteolysis of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were measured in fermented milks enriched with agave juice and inulin. Fermentations were terminated at pH 4.5 and stored for 21 days at 4 °C. Survival was determined by viable count in MRS-agar. The production of free amino groups was performed by the TNBS method and peptide separation was performed by SDS-PAGE. During fermentation, pH decreased faster in milk with agave juice than with inulin. There was no significant difference in the concentration of free amino groups (0.632 ± 0.007 and 0.627 ± 0.007 mg/L) between the two fermentation systems for any microorganism. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in the presence of agave juice was higher than the recommended concentration for probiotic foods (7.59 log CFU/mL for L. rhamnosus GG and 8.26 log CFU/mL for L. casei Shirota). The production of free amino groups and peptides of low molecular weight continued in refrigeration and was higher in systems with agave juice. This could represent a proteolytic activation in the presence of this carbon source. The results showed that agave juice might be a functional ingredient with prebiotic character in symbiotic systems.
ABSTRACT In the last decade, thrombosis has been one of the pathologies with high incidence creating great concern in Health Institutes all around the world. Considering this, the aim of this research was to determine the antithrombotic activity of peptides released during lactic fermentation. Reconstituted skim milk powder was fermented by Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 isolated from commercial fermented milks. The hydrolysis degree and proteolytic profile were analyzed by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid spectrophotometry method and by peptide polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel separation. The milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei Shirota exhibited a higher concentration of free amino groups than that fermented by Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1. Additionally, in both fermentation systems peptides with molecular weights lower than 1.4 kDa were observed. The highest inhibition of thrombin (31.67±2.35%) was observed in milk fermented by Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 at 10 hours of fermentation. Finally, no relationship was found between the antithrombotic capacity and the proteolytic profile.
Milk is an important source of bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are released during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The aim of this study was to determine the release of peptides by lactic acid bacteria in commercial fermented milk during refrigerated storage. The size and profile of peptides were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sizeexclusion HPLC. During electrophoresis, it was observed that the peptides were released from caseins, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the whey protein with the highest degradation. HPLC analysis confirmed the pattern of peptide formation observed in electrophoresis. Two fractions lower than 2 kDa with aromatic amino acids in their structure were separated. These results were consistent with those reported for structures of peptides with antihypertensive activity. Therefore, the presence of aromatic amino acids in the peptide fractions obtained increases the likelihood of finding peptides with such activity in refrigerated commercial fermented milk. In conclusion, during cold storage, peptides with different molecular weights are released and accumulated. This could be due to the action of proteinases and peptidases of the proteolytic system in lactic acid bacteria.
El atole es una bebida prehispánica mexicana tradicionalmente preparada con maíz; sin embargo cereales como el arroz y el amaranto también han sido usados empleados. El objetivo fue caracterizar las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de una harina para preparar una bebida (atole) a base de amaranto a fin de determinar su aporte nutricional. El análisis bromatológico del atole de amaranto y de las marcas comerciales (a base de maíz y arroz) fue realizado siguiendo las técnicas de la AOAC. El análisis de minerales se llevó a cabo mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. La determinación de la viscosidad se realizó en un reómetro en un intervalo de temperatura de 25 a 90ºC. El perfil descriptivo cuantitativo (QDA) del atole de amaranto fue determinado por un panel de 10 jueces entrenados. El atole de amaranto presentó un mayor contenido de proteína y grasa que los atoles de maíz y arroz. En general, sodio y potasio fueron los macrominerales más abundantes. Los atoles de maíz y arroz presentaron una viscosidad constante de 20 a 84ºC, a partir de 85ºC se observó un incremento importante de ésta; en el atole de amaranto se detectó este incremento a 75ºC. Los descriptores definidos por los jueces entrenados para los perfiles descriptivos cuantitativos de los atoles de amaranto fueron: almidón, almendra/cereza, caramelo macizo, vainilla, fresa, nuez y chocolate. El atole de amaranto, respecto a los atoles de maíz y arroz, presentó el mejor perfil nutricional, destacando su aporte proteico.
Atole is a Mexican prehispanic drink prepared traditionally with corn; however, cereals as wheat, rice and amaranth have also been used. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of an amaranth flour to prepare a drink (atole) mentioned above, in order to determine its nutritive value. Proximate analysis of the amaranth, corn and rice drink flours was determined by means of official techniques of AOAC. Mineral content was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Viscosity was measured in a reometer from 25 to 90ºC. The quantitative descriptive profile (QDA) of the amaranth drink was studied by a trained panel of 10 judges. Results showed that the amaranth drink flour presented the highest protein and fat content compared to corn and rice drink flours. Sodium and potassium were the most abundant minerals in all flours studied. Corn and rice drink flours showed a constant viscosity from 20 to 84ºC, to 85ºC an important increase in this parameter was observed. This increase was detected in the amaranth drink flour to 75ºC. Descriptors defined by trained judges for the QDA of the amaranth drink flours were: starch, almond/cherry, caramel, vanilla, strawberry, walnut and chocolate. The amaranth drink flour, compared to corn and rice drink flours, presented the best nutritional profile; it is important to emphasize its protein content.
En los últimos años han sido introducidos diferentes sistemas de cultivo en el estado de Hidalgo (México); aunque existe poca información que revele la influencia de estos en la calidad de los cereales producidos. El objetivo fue determinar las características químicas de cebadas cultivadas en tres de los municipios donde se utilizan diferentes sistemas de labranza. Los resultados mostraron que el sistema de cultivo afectó, en parte, la composición química de la cebada aunque sin tendencia definida en función de las distintas variables evaluadas. Bajo labranza mínima mostró los mayores promedios de proteína tanto en espiga como hojas y tallos. En general, las hojas y tallos presentaron contenidos altos de ceniza y bajos de fibra y lípidos. El potasio seguido por el magnesio mostraron los mayores valores entre los minerales. No se observó asociación entre los sistemas de labranza y el contenido de metales pesados.
In the last years, several tillage systems have been introduced in the State of Hidalgo (Mexico), although thereis a lack of information regarding their effect on the final quality of cereals produced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of barley cultivated in three of the producer counties where different tillage systems are used. The results showed that the tillage system, in part, affected the chemical composition of barley although without any definite trend as a function of the different variables evaluated. The higher means of protein content were found under minimum tillage, either for ears or leaves and stalks. In general, leaves and stalks showed high contents of ash, and low of fiber and lipids. Potassium followed by magnesium showed the highest values among the minerals. No association was observed between the tillage systems and the content of heavy metals.