Our systematic review evaluates surgically relevant information about corona mortis (CM), such as anatomical structure, size, laterality, incidence, and anthropometric correlations. This study aimed to provide data about anastomosis in an attempt to avoid iatrogenic damage during surgery. Articles were searched online using the descriptor “Corona Mortis” in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Saúde [LILACS], MEDLINE, indice bibliografico espaãol en ciencias de la salud [IBECS]), and SciELO database. The time range was set between 1995 and 2020. The articles were selected according to their titles and later the abstracts' relation to our research purpose. All the selected articles were read entirely. A manual search based of the references cited in these articles was also conducted to identify other articles or books of interest. Forty references fulfilled the criteria for this review. The mean incidence of CM was 63% (the majority venous) among 3,107 hemipelvises. The incidence of bilateral CM was lower than that of unilateral variations based on the analysis of 831 pelvises. The mean caliber of the anastomosis was 2.8 mm among 1,608 hemipelvises. There is no consensus concerning the anthropometric influences in CM. Finally, we concluded that CM is not an unusual anatomical variation and that we must not underestimate the risk of encountering the anastomosis during surgery. Anatomical knowledge of CM is, therefore, essential in preventing accidents for surgeons who approach the inguinal and retropubic regions.
BACKGROUND: Even students with previous academic success may face challenges that affect their academic performance. Many medical schools offer programs to students at the risk of academic failure, to ensure that they succeed in the course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this report we describe a pioneering academic tutoring program developed at a Brazilian medical school and discuss the initial results of the program based on the feedback from tutors and data regarding the progression of students in the medical course. RESULTS: In 2018, 33 students enrolled into the program. Students' performance difficulties were mainly associated with mental health problems and socioeconomic vulnerability. Of the 33 students, 27 (81.8%) were assisted by the Mental Health Support Service and 16 (48.5%) were assisted by the Social Assistance Service. In addition to the planning academic activity class load, tutors were able to assist students in solving socioeconomic issues, carrying out personal support interventions with the promotion of self-esteem, and presenting suggestions for behavioral changes in their routine. For most students (72%), the action plan proposed by the tutors was successful. Eight of the 14 (57%) students in the fourth year progressed to the final two years of in-hospital practical training (internship). CONCLUSIONS: The Academic Tutoring Program showed positive results for most of the students. Close monitoring and tutor intervention allowed students with poor academic performance to overcome the low performance cycle. These important tasks demand time and energy from tutors, and institutional recognition of these professionals is essential for the successful maintenance of the program.
OBJECTIVES: To verify the pyramidalis muscle’s frequency (bilaterality, unilaterality, or absence) and morphometry (length of the medial border and width of its origin/base) in a sample of the Brazilian population and the anthropometric influence. METHODS: Dissection of 30 cadavers, up to 24h post-mortem. RESULTS: The pyramidalis muscle was present bilaterally and unilaterally in 83.33% and 3.33% of the cadavers, respectively, and absent in 13.33%. The muscles on the right and left sides were symmetrical in length but not in width; the pyramidalis muscles of men were longer, while those of the women were wider. We also found that there was greater variation in the dimensions (length and width) of the men’s muscles. Finally, in this sample of the Brazilian population, the pyramidalis muscle’s unilaterality was more prevalent than in other populations, and its complete absence was less prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: There were no cases of muscle duplication in one or both sides, as described in some studies. Despite all of its morphometric variation, the pyramidalis muscle maintained its triangular shape with longitudinal fibers in every case. Furthermore, no statistically significant correlation was noted between the muscles’ dimensions and person’s age, height, weight, or gender.
Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have questioned whether the triceps brachii muscle tendon (TBMT) has a double or single insertion on the ulna. Aiming to provide an answer, we describe the anatomy of the TBMT and review a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of the elbow. Methods: Forty-one elbows were dissected to assess the details of the triceps brachii insertion. Elbow plastination slices were analyzed to determine whether there was a space on the TBMT. Magnetic resonance imaging from the records of the authors were also obtained to demonstrate the appearance of the pre-tricipital space on MRI. Results: A virtual space on the medial aspect near the TBTM insertion site in the olecranon was consistently found on anatomic dissections. It was a distal pre-tricipital space. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the appearance of the pre-tricipital space on MRI, and its extension was measured longitudinally either in elbow flexion or extension. There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements of this space in the right and left elbows or between flexion and extension (p > 0.05). The coefficient of variation was <10% for all measurements. Conclusion: Knowledge of this structure may be essential to avoid incorrect diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic interventions.
Abstract Purpose To identify whether the colon mucosa is affected by ten days of gastric restriction in an animal model. Methods An experimental model of gastric restriction was devised using rats. The animals were submitted to surgical gastrostomy, and a cylindrical loofah was inserted into the stomach. We studied 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups: the stomach restriction group (R10); the sham group (S10), which underwent the same procedure except for the loofah insertion; and the control group (C10). The expression of neutral and acid mucins was evaluated using histochemical techniques. Goblet cells and protein content were compared between groups using generalized estimation equations (GEEs). Bonferroni’s multiple comparison was applied to identify differences between the groups. All tests considered a 5% significance level. Results There was an increased expression of neutral mucins, acid mucins and goblet cells in the R10 group. Collagen was also enhanced in the R10 group. Conclusion The colon mucosa is affected by ten days of gastric restriction in an animal model, increasing neutral mucins, acid mucins and collagen content with trophic maintenance.
ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the presence of lymph nodes and their relationships with demographic and anthropometric characteristics in a specific region, not yet described in anatomy compendiums, called by us Recurrent Carotid Recess (RCR) and located among the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, the right common carotid artery, and the right inferior thyroid artery. Methods: 32 right cervical regions were harvested from cadavers within 24 hours post-mortem. The fibro-fatty tissue of the RCR was resected and prepared with formalin fixation. It was then subjected to an increasing sequence of alcohols (70%, 80%, and 90%), subsequently to a solution of Xylol, and finally to a solution of Methyl Salicylate, respecting the time required for each step. The macroscopic study was carried out on the diaphanized piece, observing the presence or not of lymph nodes. When present, they were photographed and their measurements were gauged with a digital caliper. In the microscopic study, hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to confirm the lymph node. Results: the presence of lymph nodes was observed in 22 (68.75%) of the 32 specimens. The number of lymph nodes ranged from zero to six (mean of 1.56±0.29), per cadaver, and their mean size was 7.82mmx3.86mm (longitudinal x transversal diameters). Conclusion: the relationship between anthropometric data and presence of lymph nodes in the RCR (Fisher’s exact test) was significant for medium-height individuals (p=0.03) and also white ones (p=0.04).
RESUMO Objetivo: descrever a presença de linfonodos e suas relações com características demográficas e antropométricas em uma região específica ainda não descrita pelos compêndios de anatomia, por nós denominada de Recesso Carotídeo Recorrencial (RCR), localizada entre o nervo laríngeo recorrente direito, a artéria carótida comum direita e a artéria tireoidea inferior direita. Métodos: foram dissecadas 32 regiões cervicais à direita de cadáveres com até 24 horas de post mortem. O tecido fibrogorduroso do RCR foi ressecado e preparado com fixação em formol. Em seguida, foi submetido a uma sequência crescente de álcoois (70%, 80% e 90%), posteriormente a uma solução de Xilol e, por fim, a uma solução de Salicilato de Metila, respeitando o tempo necessário de cada etapa. O estudo macroscópico foi realizado na peça diafanizada, observando a presença ou não de linfonodos. Quando presentes, foram fotografados e suas medidas foram aferidas com um paquímetro digital. No estudo microscópico, foi utilizada a coloração hematoxilina-eosina para confirmação do linfonodo. Resultados: observou-se a presença de linfonodos em 22 dos 32 espécimes (68,75%), com o número de linfonodos por cadáver variando de zero a seis (média de 1,56±0,29) e tamanho com média de 7,82mmx3,86mm (diâmetros longitudinal x transversal). Conclusão: a relação entre dados antropométricos e presença de linfonodos no RCR (teste exato de Fischer) foi significante para indivíduos normolíneos (p=0,03) e também significante entre a etnia branca (p=0,04).
PURPOSE:To investigate the effect of Botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) on skin flap viability in healthy, tobacco-exposed and diabetic rats.METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats (250-300g) were randomly divided into six groups: control+saline (C1), control+BoNTA (C2), tobacco-exposed+saline (T1), tobacco-exposed+BoNTA (T2) diabetes+saline (D1) and diabetes+BoNTA (D2). A dorsal cutaneous flap (3×10cm) was performed. Survival area and total area of the flaps were measured. Lumen diameter, external arterial diameter and lumen/wall thickness ratio were recorded.RESULTS: Survival area increased in control group with BoNTA injection compared with control animals injected with saline (C2 x C1; 0.9±0.1 vs0.67±0.15, p= 0.001). A similar result was found in diabetes group injected with BontA (D2 x D1; 0.97±0.2 vs0.61±0.24, p=0.018). No difference was observed in skin flap viability in tobacco-exposed groups (T2 x T1; 0.74±0.24 vs 0.64±0.21, p=0.871). Lumen diameter (p= 0.004), external arterial diameter (p = 0.0046,) and lumen/wall thickness ratio (p= 0.003) were increased in diabetes+BoNTA-treated animals. This effect was not observed in control or in tobacco-exposed groups.CONCLUSIONS:Botulinum toxin A increased skin flap viability in control and diabetic rats on the seventh post-operative day. Increased lumen diameter, external arterial diameter, and lumen/wall thickness ratio were observed in the diabetes+BoNTA group. BoNTA had no effect in the tobacco-exposed group on the seventh postoperative day.
PURPOSE:To describe an effective experimental model to study the Achilles tendon healing.METHODS:Forty male Rattus norvegicus albinus,Wistar lineage adult male weighing 250 to 300g were used for this experiment and thirty were surgically submitted to bilateral partial transverse section of the Achilles tendon. The right tendon was treated with radio waves (RF) whereas the left tendon served as control. On the third postoperative day, the rats were divided into four experimental groups consisting of ten rats each which were treated with monopolar RF adjusted to 650 kHz and 2w, for two minutes twice a week and a group of normal animals without any intervention, until they were sacrificed on the 7th, 14th and 28th days, respectively. Tendons were weighed and collagen quantification was evaluated by hydroxyprolin content.RESULTS:Significant reduction in collagen content on day 7, 14 and 28 was related to control experiment to normal tendon (7 days, p<0.01; 14 e 28 days, p<0.05).CONCLUSION:The experimental model has been effective and available to be used to study Achilles tendon healing.
PURPOSE: To describe a new experimental flap for studying skin viability in rats.METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats weighing between 250-300g were divided into two groups: group A - McFarlane technique, a 4 x 10cm flap was used (McFarlane); and in group B modified McFarlane technique, a 3 x 10cm flap was used. Seven days later, the animals were sacrificed and the area of necrosis was evaluated in both groups.RESULTS: Group A presented necrosis in 3% of the total area of the flap (CI: 0.01-0.05), Group B presented necrosis in 37% of the total area of the flap (CI: 0.29-0.46), (p<0.001).CONCLUSION: The modified McFarlane flap presented a larger area of necrosis and could be an adequate experimental model of skin flap viability.
This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle, knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Eight points were identified: In all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTPs. The eight points where common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MPT is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, providing useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches.
El objetivo de este estudio fue correlacionar los sitios de entrada de los ramos del nervio accesorio en el músculo trapecio con placas motoras y los puntos de gatillo miofasciales. A pesar de las correlaciones anatomoclínicas se constituyeren en la principal característica de los puntos de gatillo, no hay informes en la literatura describiendo sobre la distribución de los ramos del nervio accesorio y su relación anatómica con los puntos de gatillo. Ambos músculos trapecio de doce cadáveres adultos fueron disecados por los autores (profesores de anatomía y estudiantes de postgrado en Medicina) para observar el punto exacto donde los ramos del nervio accesorio espinal penetraban en el vientre muscular. La disección se llevó a cabo respetando las capas estratigráficas para preservar la inervación del músculo ubicada profundamente a éste. Ocho puntos fueron identificados: En todos los casos correspondieron a la descripción clínica de los puntos gatillo miofasciales y eran comunes a todos los cadáveres. Esta correlación anatomoclínica entre la ramificación del nervio espinal accesorio y los puntos de gatillo miofascial es útil para una mejor comprensión de la fisiopatología de los puntos gatillo y puede proporcionar una base para un abordaje diagnóstico y terapéutico racional para estos trastornos.
The classic approach for cochlear implant surgery includes mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. The middle cranial fossa approach is a proven alternative, but it has been used only sporadically and inconsistently in cochlear implantation. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new approach to expose the basal turn of the cochlea in cochlear implant surgery through the middle cranial fossa. METHOD: Fifty temporal bones were dissected in this anatomic study of the temporal bone. Cochleostomies were performed through the middle cranial fossa approach in the most superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea, using the meatal plane and the superior petrous sinus as landmarks. The lateral wall of the internal acoustic canal was dissected after the petrous apex had been drilled and stripped. The dissected wall of the inner acoustic canal was followed longitudinally to the cochleostomy. RESULTS: Only the superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea was opened in the fifty temporal bones included in this study. The exposure of the basal turn of the cochlea allowed the visualization of the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, which enabled the array to be easily inserted through the scala tympani. CONCLUSION: The proposed approach is simple to use and provides sufficient exposure of the basal turn of the cochlea.
A técnica clássica para o implante coclear é realizada através de mastoidectomia e timpanotomia posterior. A abordagem pela fossa craniana média provou ser uma alternativa valiosa, embora venha sendo usada para o implante coclear apenas esporadicamente e sem normatização. OBJETIVO: Descrever uma nova abordagem para expor o giro basal da cóclea para o implante coclear através da fossa craniana média. MÉTODO: Cinquenta ossos temporais foram dissecados. A cocleostomia foi realizada através de uma abordagem via fossa craniana média, na parte mais superficial do giro basal da cóclea, usando o plano meatal e seio petroso superior como pontos de reparo. A parede lateral do meato acústico interno foi dissecada após o broqueamento e esqueletização do ápice petroso. A parede dissecada do meato acústico interno foi acompanhada longitudinalmente até a cocleostomia. Design: Estudo anatômico de osso temporal. RESULTADOS: Em todos os ossos temporais, apenas a parte superficial do giro basal da cóclea foi aberta. A exposição do giro basal da cóclea permitiu que as escalas timpânica e vestibular fossem visualizadas. Assim, não houve dificuldade na inserção do feixe de eletrodos através da escala timpânica. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica proposta é simples e permite exposição suficiente do giro basal da cóclea.
The treatment of hemorrhoidal disease (HD) by conventional hemorrhoidectomy is associated with significant morbidity, mainly represented by the postoperative pain and the late return to daily activities. Doppler-guided hemorrhoid artery ligation (DGHAL) is a minimal-invasive surgical treatment for HD that has been used as an alternative method in order to reduce these inconveniences. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the initial results of the DGHAL technique associated with rectal mucopexy in the treatment of HD. METHODS:Forty-two patients with stage I, III and IV hemorrhoids who were submitted to DGHAL were analyzed from December 2010 to August 2011. Eleven patients (26%) were stage II; 21 (50%), stage III; and 10 (24%), stage IV HD. All patients were operated by the same surgeon under spinal anesthesia and using the same equipment and technique to perform the procedure. The 42 patients underwent ligation of six arterial branches followed by rectal mucopexia by uninterrupted suture. Nine patients needed concomitant removal of perianal skin tag. In the postoperative, the following parameters were evaluated: pain, tenesmus, bleeding, itching, prolapse, mucus discharge and recurrence. The mean postoperative follow-up lasted four months (one to nine months). RESULTS: Tenesmus was the most common postoperative complaint for 85.7% of patients followed by pain, in 28.6%, perianal burning, in 12.3%, mucus discharge and perianal hematoma in 4.7%. Two patients had severe postoperative bleeding and required surgical haemostasis, one of which needed blood transfusion. Ninety-five percent of the patients declared to be satisfied with the method. CONCLUSION: Even though DGHAL has complications similar to those of other surgical methods, its results present less postoperative pain, allowing faster recovery and return to work. Studies with more cases and a longer follow-up are still necessary to assess the late recurrence.
O tratamento da doença hemorroidária (DH) pelas técnicas convencionais cursa com significante morbidade principalmente relacionada à dor pós-operatória e ao considerável tempo de afastamento do trabalho. A técnica de desarterialização hemorroidária transanal guiada por doppler (DHGD) associada à mucopexia retal é uma opção cirúrgica menos invasiva que vem sendo utilizada como método alternativo com objetivo de reduzir esses inconvenientes. OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados iniciais com a técnica da DHGD associada à mucopexia retal no tratamento da DH. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 42 pacientes, portadores de DH de graus II, III e IV submetidos à técnica da DHGD, durante o período de dezembro de 2010 a agosto de 2011. Onze pacientes (26%) apresentavam DH do grau II, 21(50%) do III e 10 (24%) do IV. Todos os pacientes foram operados pelo mesmo cirurgião, sob anestesia raquidiana e sempre utilizando o mesmo equipamento e técnica para realização do procedimento. Os 42 pacientes foram submetidos à desarterialização de 6 ramos arteriais seguida de mucopexia retal por sutura contínua. Nove necessitaram remoção concomitante de plicomas perianais. No pós-operatório, foram avaliados os parâmetros: dor, tenesmo, sangramento, prurido, prolapso, perda de muco e recidiva. O seguimento médio foi de quatro meses (um a nove meses). RESULTADOS: O tenesmo foi a queixa pós-operatória referida por 85,7% dos pacientes, seguida da dor 28,6%, ardor perianal 12,3%, perda de muco e formação de hematoma perianal 4,7%. Dois pacientes apresentaram sangramento pós-operatório de maior intensidade necessitando hemostasia cirúrgica, sendo que em um houve necessidade de reposição sanguínea. Noventa e cinco por cento dos pacientes declararam-se satisfeitos com o método. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica da DHGD, apesar de apresentar complicações semelhantes a outros métodos cirúrgicos, apresenta bons resultados com pouca dor pós-operatória, possibilitando retorno rápido ao trabalho. Estudos com maior número de casos e tempo de seguimento mais prolongado ainda são necessários para avaliar a recidiva tardia.
Lymph node metastases are a major prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Inadequate lymph node resection is related to shorter survival. The lymph nodes ratio (LNR) has been used as a prognostic factor in patients with colon cancer. Few studies have evaluated the impact of LNR on the 5-year survival of patients with rectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of LNR on the survival of patients with rectal cancer not submitted to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: Ninety patients with rectal cancer excluding colon tumors, synchronous tumors, hereditary colorectal cancer and those undergoing preoperative chemoradiation. The patients were divided into three groups according t < 0.05). RESULTS: The 5-year survival was related to the Dukes classification, TNM, number of metastatic lymph nodes and LNR. A difference was observed in 5-year survival between the different classes of LNR. Patients classified as LNR-0 had a survival rate of 85%, while classes LNR-1 and LNR-2, 73 and 19%, respectively (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the LNR has an impact on 5-year survival of patients with rectal cancer not submitted to neoadjuvant therapy.
Metástases linfonodais representam um dos principais fatores prognósticos no câncer colorretal. A ressecção linfonodal inadequada relaciona-se à menor sobrevida. A proporção entre linfonodos metastáticos (PLM) vem sendo utilizada como fator prognóstico em doentes com câncer de cólon. Poucos estudos avaliaram o impacto da PLM na sobrevida de doentes com câncer retal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da PLM na sobrevida de doentes com câncer de reto não submetidos à quimioradioterapia pré-operatória. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 90 doentes com adenocarcinoma retal excluindo-se tumores de cólon, tumores sincrônicos, câncer colorretal hereditário e aqueles submetidos a tratamento radioquimioterápico pré-operatório. Os doentes foram divididos em três grupos segundo a PLM: PLM-0, sem linfonodos comprometidos; PLM-1, 1 a 20% dos linfonodos comprometidos; e PLM-2, mais de 21% dos linfonodos comprometidos. A identificação do ponto de corte da amostra selecionada foi obtida a partir da curva de características de operação do receptor (curva ROC). A sobrevida foi avaliada pelo teste de Kaplan-Meier, a diferença entre os grupos pelo teste de Cox-Mantel e a correlação entre as variáveis pelo teste de Pearson, adotando-se um nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: A sobrevida em cinco anos relacionou-se à classificação de Dukes, TNM, número de linfonodos metastáticos e PLM. Houve diferença na sobrevida ao compararem-se as diferentes classes de PLM. Doentes classificados como PLM-0 apresentaram sobrevida de 85%, enquanto os pertencentes às classes PLM-1 e PLM-2, de 73 e 19%, respectivamente (p=0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados mostraram que a PLM tem impacto na sobrevida de doentes com câncer de reto não submetidos à neoadjuvância.</