Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the role of photobiomodulation (PBM) in apexification and apexogenesis of necrotic rat molars with an open apex. Rat molars were exposed to the oral environment for 3 weeks. Canals were rinsed with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, filled with antibiotic paste and sealed. After 7 days, canals were rinsed and divided into six groups (n=6): mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); blood clot (BC); human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC); MTA+PBM; BC+PBM; and hDPSC+PBM. In hDPSC groups, a 1% agarose gel scaffold was used. Two groups were not exposed: healthy tooth+PBM (n = 6), healthy tooth (n = 3); and one was exposed throughout the experiment: necrotic tooth (n = 3). In PBM groups, irradiation was performed with aluminum gallium indium phosphide (InGaAlP) diode laser for 30 days within 24-h intervals. After that, the specimens were processed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Necrotic tooth showed greater neutrophil infiltrate (p < 0.05). Necrotic tooth, healthy tooth, and healthy tooth+PBM groups showed absence of a thin layer of fibrous condensation in the periapical area. All the other groups stimulated the formation of a thicker layer of fibers (p < 0.05). All groups formed more mineralized tissue than necrotic tooth (p < 0.05). PBM associated with MTA, BC, or hDPSC formed more mineralized tissue (p < 0.05). MTA+PBM induced apexification (p < 0.05). Rabbit polyclonal anti-bone sialoprotein (BSP) antibody confirmed the histological findings of mineralized tissue formation, and hDPSC groups exhibited higher percentage of BSP-positive cells. It can be concluded that PBM improved apexification and favored apexogenesis in necrotic rat molars with an open apex.
Abstract This study aimed to compare apical transportation, centering ratio, and working time during root canal preparation with Wizard Navigator (WN), WaveOne (WO), or ProTaper Universal (PT) and to describe deformation and fracture of these instruments. Thirty-six mesiobuccal roots from maxillary molars were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned and then sorted into three groups (n = 12): Wizard Navigator (WN), WaveOne (WO), and ProTaper Universal (PT). The root canals were prepared using WN, WO, or PT; the time of each canal preparation was timed; and the specimens were micro-CT re-scanned. The instruments were submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after their use. The data on canal transportation at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm and preparation time were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test. The centering ratio was analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s test. Both instrument deformation and fracture were described. Apical transportation was similar among groups at 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm. The WO group showed higher canal transportation at 5mm than the other groups (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in centering ratio among the groups. Preparation time in the WO group was significantly lower than in the other groups (p = 0.004). Small differences were observed in the surface area of all instruments. The WN, WO, and PT groups had a similar centering ratio without procedural errors or significant structural changes. At 5 mm from the apex, the WO group showed the largest canal transportation toward the furcation and root canal preparation was faster than in the WN and PT groups.