Abstract The health and economic impact of allergic diseases are increasing rapidly, and changes in management strategies are required. Its influence reduces the capacity of work and school performance by at least a third. The ICPs of the airways (integrated care pathways for respiratory diseases) are structured multidisciplinary healthcare plans, promoting the recommendations of the guidelines in local protocols and their application to clinical practice. This document presents an executive summary for Argentina, Mexico, and Spain. Next-generation ARIA guidelines are being developed for the pharmacological treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR), using the GRADE-based guidelines for AR, tested with real-life evidence provided by mobile technology with visual analogue scales. It is concluded that in the AR treatment, H1-antihistamines are less effective than intranasal corticosteroids (INCS), in severe AR the INCS represent the first line of treatment, and intranasal combination INCS + anti-H1 is more effective than monotherapy. However, according to the MASK real-life observational study, patients have poor adherence to treatment and often self-medicate, according to their needs.
Abstract Although there are high quality clinical guidelines about allergic rhinitis, many patients receive deficient treatment, partly due to the high level of self-medication. MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network) is an integral part of a project against chronic diseases which it is focused on active and healthy aging and is supported by the European Union. It forms the third phase of ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) in which, through a mobile app on a smart device, the purpose is to guide patients in the control of their multimorbidity, allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis, or asthma. The "Allergy Diary" app by MACVIA-ARIA is free and it is available for Android and iOS; on it, patients indicate how unpleasant the symptoms are on a daily basis through five screens with an analogous visual scale; two more screens were recently added (sleep affectation). With the app, it is also possible to download the information of the “Allergy Diary” on the physician’s computer through a QR code at the moment of the medical consultation. In this article, we review the first year of experience in Spain, Mexico and Argentina, where the Spanish version is used.
Abstract The vast majority of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) do not receive the proper management which is recommended by the guidelines, but they frequently self-medicate. MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network) is an integral part of a project that is supported by the European Union against chronic diseases and focused on active and healthy aging. MASK represents the third phase of ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), in which, by using a mobile application in a smart device, the objective is to guide the patient in the control of his/her multi-morbidity, AR and/or allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and/or asthma. The mobile app Allergy Diary by MACVIA-ARIA is free and it is available for both Android and iOS platforms. After it is downloaded to the patient’s cell phone, it first requests some information about the patient’s profile, allergic pathologies and medication; afterwards, through a visual analog scale, the patient is invited to determine the degree of affectation in the nose, eyes, and bronchi, and its influence on their productivity at work / school. After analyzing the data generated by filling the Allergy Diary, it became clear there is a new clinical entity: allergic rhinitis+ allergic conjunctivitis +asthma, with greater effect; in addition to a high level of self-medication: in general, the patient takes medication on days when symptoms are present. The app has already been deployed in 23 countries, including several Spanish-speaking countries.
Abstract The ARIA initiative was started during a World Health Organization workshop in 1999. The initial goals were to propose a new classification for allergic rhinitis, to promote the concept of multi-morbidity in asthma and rhinitis and to develop guidelines with stakeholders for world-wide use. ARIA is now focused on the implementation of emerging technologies for individualized and predictive medicine. MASK: MACVIA-Aria Sentinel Network uses mobile technology to develop care pathways that enable management by a multidisciplinary group or by patients themselves. An App for iOS and Android uses a visual analogue scale to assess symptom control and work productivity, as well as a clinical decision support system; it is associated with an interoperable tablet for health professionals. The escalation strategy uses recommendations of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. The aim of ARIA’s new approach is to provide an active and healthy life to people affected by rhinitis, regardless of age, gender or socioeconomic status, in order to reduce social and health inequalities caused by the disease.
Resumen La iniciativa ARIA (Rinitis Alérgica y su Impacto en el Asma) se inició durante un taller de la Organización Mundial de la Salud en 1999. Los objetivos iniciales fueron proponer una nueva clasificación de rinitis alérgica, promover el concepto de multimorbilidad en asma y rinitis y desarrollar guías con todas las partes interesadas para su en todos los países y poblaciones. ARIA, difundida e implementada en más de 70 naciones, ahora se centra en la implementación de tecnologías emergentes para la medicina individualizada y predictiva. MASK (MACVIA [Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif] Aria Sentinel Network) utiliza la tecnología móvil para desarrollar vías de atención que permitan el manejo de la rinitis y del asma por un grupo multidisciplinario o por los propios pacientes. Una aplicación (app) para iOS y Android está disponible en 20 países y 15 idiomas; utiliza una escala analógica visual para evaluar el control de los síntomas y la productividad del trabajo, así como un sistema de apoyo para las decisiones clínicas. Se asocia con una tabla interoperable (que permite intercambiar información) para médicos y otros profesionales de la salud. La estrategia de escalamiento utiliza las recomendaciones de la Asociación Europea de Innovación para el Envejecimiento Activo y Saludable. El objetivo del nuevo enfoque ARIA es proporcionar una vida activa y saludable a las personas afectadas por la rinitis, cualquiera que sea su edad, sexo o condición socioeconómica, con el fin de reducir las desigualdades sociales y de salud causadas por la enfermedad.
Abstract: Background: Anaphylaxis is a systemic and severe allergic reaction, which can be fatal. The first-line treatment of choice, according to international guidelines, is intramuscular adrenaline. However, different studies show that the performance of health professionals managing anaphylaxis is often inadequate. Objective: To assess the current resources available in Latin American countries for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis. Methods: Online survey promoted by the Latin American Society of Allergy and Immunology to representatives of the national allergy societies of Latin American countries. Results: Responses were received from 10 countries out of the 14 countries invited to participate. Only five of the countries have clinical practice guidelines in anaphylaxis. Adrenaline autoinjectors are available only in two countries, Argentina and Brazil, but are not subsidized by public health systems. In all countries, adrenaline is available in ampoules, which is the presentation usually prescribed to patients for self-administration. The use of adrenaline was estimated to be less than 50 % of cases in five countries, while antihistamines and corticosteroids are almost always used. The determination of serum tryptase is possible in some health centers, often private, in five of the countries surveyed. Conclusion: It is necessary to improve resources related to the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis in Latin American countries.
Resumen: Antecedentes: La anafilaxia es una reacción alérgica sistémica y grave que puede resultar fatal. El tratamiento de elección de primera línea, según las guías internacionales, es la adrenalina intramuscular. No obstante, diferentes estudios muestran que las acciones de los profesionales sanitarios ante un cuadro de anafilaxia frecuentemente son inadecuadas. Objetivo: Analizar los recursos actuales disponibles en los países de América Latina para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la anafilaxia. Métodos: Encuesta en línea promovida por la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología y realizada a representantes de las sociedades nacionales de alergia de los países de América Latina. Resultados: Se recibieron respuestas de 10 países de los 14 a los que se invitó. Solo en 5 se disponía de guías de práctica clínica en anafilaxia y en 2, Argentina y Brasil, de autoinyectores de adrenalina, no subvencionados por el sistema público de atención a la salud. En todos los países se dispone de adrenalina en ampolletas, que suele prescribirse a los pacientes para autoadministración. Se estimó que la utilización de adrenalina se emplea en menos de 50 % de los casos en 5 países, mientras que los antihistamínicos y los corticoides se utilizan casi siempre. En 5 países, la determinación de triptasa sérica fue posible en algunos centros sanitarios, muchas veces privados. Conclusión: Es necesario mejorar los recursos relacionados con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la anafilaxia en los países latinoamericanos.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n =634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency.