Abstract Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), also known as ectrodactyly is a rare genetic disorder. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of limb malformations characterized by absence/hypoplasia and/or median cleft of hands and/or feet. To date, seven genes underlying SHFM have been identified. This study described four consanguineous families (A-D) segregating SHFM in an autosomal recessive manner. Linkage in the families was established to chromosome 12p11.1–q13.13 harboring WNT10B gene. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous nonsense variant (p.Gln154*) in exon 4 of the WNT10B gene in two families (A and B). In the other two families (C and D), a previously reported variant (c.300_306dupAGGGCGG; p.Leu103Argfs*53) was detected. This study further expands the spectrum of the sequence variants reported in the WNT10B gene, which result in the split hand/foot malformation.
Using panel data from the International Country Risk Guide corruption index, institutional quality and political stability indices and several state variables for developed and developing countries, this paper explores the linear quadratic empirical relationship between corruption and economic growth. Empirical literature has shown a linear relationship between corruption and economic growth but hasn't differentiated between growth-enhancing and growth-reducing levels of corruption. An analysis based on the generalized method of moments estimation shows that a decrease in corruption raises the economic growth rate in an inverted U-shaped way. This result is robust with respect to alternative specifications of the econometric relationship.