Orthogonal design was employed to study the effect of extraction time, temperature and liquid-to-solid ratio on the production of antioxidant polysaccharides from leaves of Gynura bicolor (PLG). Analysis of variance was performed on the data obtained. The most relevant variable was extraction time. A liquid-solid ratio of 30:1 (v/w), a temperature of 80 °C and an extraction time of 3 h were found to be optimal for PLG. The optimal extraction yield of 4.9% was obtained through additional verification test. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating ability of PLG were determined. PLG possess concentration-dependent antioxidant potency and IC50 of PLG was 4.67, 0.24 and 4.31 mg/mL for hydroxyl radical-scavenging and ferric ion chelating abilities as well as reducing power, respectively. The results suggest that G. bicolor polysaccharides could be potential source of natural antioxidant and be contributor to the health benefits of G. bicolor.
The antioxidant activities of ethanolic crude extract (LPCE) and its four different solvent sub-fractions (namely, diethyl ether fraction (LPDF), ethyl acetate fraction (LPEF), n-butyl alcohol fraction (LPBF) and residue fraction (LPR)) from longan pericarps were investigated employing various systems including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/ 2,2'-amino-di(2-ethyl-benzothiazoline sulphonic acid-6)ammonium salt (ABTS)/hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and reducing power. Each extract showed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. LPEF showed the highest scavenging activity against DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals with EC50 values of 0.506, 0.228 and 4.489 mg/mL, respectively. LPEF showed the highest reducing power with EC50 values of 0.253 mg/mL. The next was LPDF with EC50 values of 0.260 mg/mL. LPEF possessed the highest total phenolic content (230.816 mg/g, expressed as gallic acid equivalents), followed by LPDF, LPBF, LPCE and LPR. The results suggested that longan pericarp fractions possessed significant antioxidant activities and could be a promising source of natural antioxidant.