OBJECTIVES: This observational, cross-sectional study based aimed to test whether heart failure (HF)-disease management program (DMP) components are influencing care and clinical decision-making in Brazil. METHODS: The survey respondents were cardiologists recommended by experts in the field and invited to participate in the survey via printed form or email. The survey consisted of 29 questions addressing site demographics, public versus private infrastructure, HF baseline data of patients, clinical management of HF, performance indicators, and perceptions about HF treatment. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 98 centers (58% public and 42% private practice) distributed across Brazil. Public HF-DMPs compared to private HF-DMP were associated with a higher percentage of HF-DMP-dedicated services (79% vs 24%; OR: 12, 95% CI: 94-34), multidisciplinary HF (MHF)-DMP [84% vs 65%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-8), HF educational programs (49% vs 18%; OR: 4; 95% CI: 1-2), written instructions before hospital discharge (83% vs 76%; OR: 1; 95% CI: 0-5), rehabilitation (69% vs 39%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-9), monitoring (44% vs 29%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 1-5), guideline-directed medical therapy-HF use (94% vs 85%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 0-15), and less B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) dosage (73% vs 88%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-9), and key performance indicators (37% vs 60%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 1-7). In comparison to non- MHF-DMP, MHF-DMP was associated with more educational initiatives (42% vs 6%; OR: 12; 95% CI: 1-97), written instructions (83% vs 68%; OR: 2: 95% CI: 1-7), rehabilitation (69% vs 17%; OR: 11; 95% CI: 3-44), monitoring (47% vs 6%; OR: 14; 95% CI: 2-115), GDMT-HF (92% vs 83%; OR: 3; 95% CI: 0-15). In addition, there were less use of BNP as a biomarker (70% vs 84%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 1-8) and key performance indicators (35% vs 51%; OR: 2; 95% CI: 91,6) in the non-MHF group. Physicians considered changing or introducing new medications mostly when patients were hospitalized or when observing worsening disease and/or symptoms. Adherence to drug treatment and non-drug treatment factors were the greatest medical problems associated with HF treatment. CONCLUSION: HF-DMPs are highly heterogeneous. New strategies for HF care should consider the present study highlights and clinical decision-making processes to improve HF patient care.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the choroid and sclera using hypercholesterolemia experimental model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups: 8 rabbits (8 eyes), in the normal diet group (NG), were fed by a standard diet for 4 weeks; and 13 rabbits (13 eyes), in the hypercholesterolemic group (HG), were fed by a 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose exams were performed at the initiation of the experiment and at the euthanasia time. After hypercholesterolemic group 8th week and NG 4th week, animals were euthanized and their eyes underwent immunohistochemical analysis with the RAM-11 and VEGFR-1). RESULTS: The diet has induced a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in HG when compared with NG (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in the RAM-11 and VEGFR-1 expressions in hypercholesterolemic group choroid and sclera in relation to NG (p<0,001). CONCLUSION: This study has revealed that the hypercholesterolemic diet in rabbits induces an increase in the macrophage concentration and immunoreactivity to VEGFR-1 in the choroid and sclera, resembling human age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a expressão do fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF) na coroide e esclera, utilizando um modelo experimental de hipercolesterolemia. MÉTODO: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: O grupo dieta normal (GN), composto por 8 coelhos (8 olhos), recebeu ração padrão para coelhos, durante 4 semanas; e o grupo hipercolesterolêmico (GH), composto por 13 coelhos (13 olhos), recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1% por 8 semanas. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 8ª semana para o GH e 4ª semana para o GN foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com os anticorpos RAM-11 e VEGFR-1. RESULTADOS: Observou-se significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001). Houve significativo aumento da expressão da RAM-11 e VEGFR-1 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica em coelhos induz ao aumento da concentração de macrófagos e da imunorreatividade ao VEGFR-1 na coroide e esclera, expressando similaridade com a degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI) humana.