PURPOSE: To investigate the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) after subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone prior to skin incision in rats.METHODS:Twenty seven Wistar-EPM-1 rats were randomly divided into three groups. The sham group (SG) of rats was injected with 0.9 % saline. The second group (Dexa) was injected with 1.0 mg/kg dexamethasone, and the third group (Dexa+) was injected with 10.0 mg/kg dexamethasone. In all groups, the three subcutaneous injections were performed 30 minutes prior to the surgical skin incision and tissue collection. SP and CGRP (15 kDa pro-CGRP and 5 kDa CGRP) were quantified by Western Blotting.RESULTS: No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found in pro-CGRP, CGRP and SP values in all three groups.CONCLUSION:The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone did not occur when the substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide levels were altered during the neurogenic inflammation process of skin wound healing in rats.
PURPOSE: To determine the limitations of the photographs used to obtain the anthropometric measurements of the breast region. METHODS: Five women, between the ages of 18 to 60 years, were evaluated. Photographs of the frontal and left and right profile views of their breasts were taken. Based on the current literature, the most commonly used anthropometric and anatomic landmarks for breast measurement were marked in their different positions. The different points were used to evaluate if the direct anthropometry was possible in a standardized way and determine how the points and the positions can to be used in any breast measurements. RESULTS: There were some limitations to the use of defining points of the breast fold, as well as of its lower portion and lateral extension positions in both profiles. CONCLUSION: The defining points of the breast fold and the profile photographs have some limitations and we suggested how the points and positions can be used for breasts measurements.
PURPOSE: To compare breast measurements performed using the software packages ImageTool(r), AutoCAD(r) and Adobe Photoshop(r) with direct anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Points were marked on the breasts and arms of 40 volunteer women aged between 18 and 60 years. When connecting the points, seven linear segments and one angular measurement on each half of the body, and one medial segment common to both body halves were defined. The volunteers were photographed in a standardized manner. Photogrammetric measurements were performed by three independent observers using the three software packages and compared to direct anthropometric measurements made with calipers and a protractor. RESULTS: Measurements obtained with AutoCAD(r) were the most reproducible and those made with ImageTool(r) were the most similar to direct anthropometry, while measurements with Adobe Photoshop(r) showed the largest differences. Except for angular measurements, significant differences were found between measurements of line segments made using the three software packages and those obtained by direct anthropometry. CONCLUSION: AutoCAD(r) provided the highest precision and intermediate accuracy; ImageTool(r) had the highest accuracy and lowest precision; and Adobe Photoshop(r) showed intermediate precision and the worst accuracy among the three software packages.
PURPOSE: To investigate the subcutaneous injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) on neuropeptides Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) and Substance P (SP) secretion in rat skin.METHODS: Fifty-six Wistar-EPM rats were distributed in two groups: one for CGRP analysis, the other for SP analysis. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups: control (Cont), control with needle (ContNd), CO2 injection (CO2Inj) and atmospheric air injection (AirInj) - with seven animals each. Sample analyses of partial skin were conducted by Western Blotting (WB).RESULTS: In SP group, there was a decrease in the amount of neuropeptides in subgroups CO2Inj and AirInj. Similarly, in CGRP group, there was a decrease in the amount of pro-CGRP neuropeptides (15 kDa) in subgroups CO2Inj and AirInj; Nevertheless, there was no decrease in the amount of CGRP (5 kDa) in any subgroups.CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of CO2 and atmospheric air decreased the amount of Substance P and pro-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (15 kDa) neuropeptides in rat skin.
BACKGROUND:Early recovery is an important factor for people undergoing facial plastic. However, the normal inflammatory processes that are a consequence of surgery commonly cause oedema (swelling) and ecchymosis (bruising), which are undesirable complications. Severe oedema and ecchymosis delay full recovery, and may make patients dissatisfied with procedures. Perioperative corticosteroids have been used in facial plastic surgery with the aim of preventing oedema and ecchymosis.OBJECTIVES:To determine the effects, including safety, of perioperative administration of corticosteroids for preventing complications following facial plastic surgery in adults.METHODS:Search strategy: In January 2014, we searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase; EBSCO CINAHL; and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication. Selection criteria: We included RCTs that compared the administration of perioperative systemic corticosteroids with another intervention, no intervention or placebo in facial plastic surgery. ata collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened the trials for inclusion in the review, appraised trial quality and extracted data.MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 trials, with a total of 422 participants, that addressed two of the outcomes of interest to this review: swelling (oedema) and bruising (ecchymosis). Nine studies on rhinoplasty used a variety of different types, and doses, of corticosteroids. Overall, the results of the included studies showed that there is some evidence that perioperative administration of corticosteroids decreases formation of oedema over the first two postoperative days. Meta-analysis was only possible for two studies, with a total of 60 participants, and showed that a single perioperative dose of 10 mg dexamethasone decreased oedema formation in the first two days after surgery (SMD = -1.16, 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.61, low quality evidence). The evidence for ecchymosis was less consistent across the studies, with some contradictory results, but overall there was some evidence that perioperatively administered corticosteroids decreased ecchymosis formation over the first two days after surgery (SMD = -1.06, 95% CI:-1.47 to -0.65, two studies, 60 participants, low quality evidence). The difference was not maintained after this initial period. One study, with 40 participants, showed that high doses of methylprednisolone (over 250 mg) decreased both ecchymosis and oedema between the first and seventh postoperative days. The only study that assessed facelift surgery identified no positive effect on oedema with preoperative administration of corticosteroids. Five trials did not report on harmful (adverse) effects; four trials reported that there were no adverse effects; and one trial reported adverse effects in two participants treated with corticosteroids as well as in four participants treated with placebo. None of the studies reported recovery time, patient satisfaction or quality of life. The studies included were all at an unclear risk of selection bias and at low risk of bias for other domains.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:There is limited evidence for rhinoplasty that a single perioperative dose of corticosteroids decreases oedema and ecchymosis formation over the first two postoperative days, but the difference is not maintained after this period. There is also limited evidence that high doses of corticosteroids decrease both ecchymosis and oedema between the first and seventh postoperative days. The clinical significance of this decrease is unknown and there is little evidence available regarding the safety of this intervention. More studies are needed because at present the available evidence does not support the use of corticosteroids for prevention of complications following facial plastic surgery.
The aim of this study was to describe concepts of health economics in order to update and provide the orthopedic practitioner decision making parameters based on preferences. Four basic types of studies of economical evaluation were presented (cost minimization analysis, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), as well as the origin, the concept, advantages and disadvantages of using QALY and utility. It was discussed the importance of costs and of SF-6D, an instrument able to get through the utility data from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Physicians, especially orthopedic practitioners, are increasingly using technologies which are progressively expensive, thus, they should be able to understand health economics concepts, the importance of utility in clinical decision making process and economic analysis in health.09+
PURPOSE: To describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. METHODS: On this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. RESULTS: After 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. CONCLUSION: The proposed experimental model is reproductable. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits.
BACKGROUND: Keloid and hypertrophic scars have a common physiopathogenic origin and are defined as fibroproliferative scars. Fibroproliferative scars are frequent in individuals with darker skin. However, mixing of "races" renders it difficult to group patients with different skin tones according to morphological and static classifications (white for Caucasians; brown for individuals of Spanish descent (Hispanic/Latino); yellow for individuals of East Asian descent; and black for individuals of African descent) according to their response to sun exposure. It is known that when individuals whose ethnic origin is in colder countries move to tropical countries, they show a higher incidence of these types of scars, which mainly affect parts of the body that are more exposed to the sun. A correlation between fibroproliferative scars and Fitzpatrick phototype, a dynamic classification based on the skin's response to sun exposure, would contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology of these scars. The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of fibroproliferative scars according to Fitzpatrick phototypes. METHODS: We classified patients' fibroproliferative scars according to the Muir classification as Long-Term Evolution (keloid scars), Short-Term Evolution (hypertrophic scars), and Intermediate Group (mixed scars), while their skin types were grouped according to the Fitzpatrick classification. RESULTS: Fitzpatrick phototype III and mixed scars were predominant among the patients analyzed (p = 0.001). A correlation (p = 0.025) was observed between fibroproliferative scars and Fitzpatrick phototypes; the higher the phototype, the higher the tendency to develop keloid and mixed scar tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Fitzpatrick skin phototypes proved to be an efficient method to study keloid and hypertrophic scars.
INTRODUÇÃO: Queloide e cicatriz hipertrófica são cicatrizes patológicas com natureza fisiopatogênica comum, denominadas, em conjunto, cicatrizes fibroproliferativas. São mais frequentes em indivíduos de pele mais escura. Contudo, a atual miscigenação dificulta o enquadramento dos pacientes com variadas tonalidades de pele em classificações morfológicas e estáticas (branco ou caucasoide, mulato, pardo, hispânico ou latino, amarelo ou oriental ou mongoloide e negro ou negroide), e diferentes quanto à exposição solar. Sabe-se que pessoas oriundas de países de clima temperado ou frio quando residem em países tropicais aumentam a incidência dessas cicatrizes, principalmente nas áreas de maior exposição solar. Uma relação entre as cicatrizes fibroproliferativas e os fototipos de Fitzpatrick, classificação dinâmica baseada no relato do paciente quanto a sua resposta cutânea após a exposição solar, poderia contribuir para a compreensão da fisiopatologia dessas cicatrizes. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a distribuição das cicatrizes fibroproliferativas segundo os fototipos de Fitzpatrick. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 146 pacientes provenientes do Ambulatório da Disciplina de Cirurgia Plástica da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, São Paulo, SP, Brasil), portadores de qualquer tipo de cicatriz fibroproliferativa, em um ou mais locais do corpo. As cicatrizes fibroproliferativas dos pacientes foram classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Muir em cicatriz tipo queloide (Long-term Evolution, LTE), cicatriz tipo hipertrófica (Short-term Evolution, STE) e cicatriz tipo mista (Intermediate Group, IG), e os tipos de pele foram classificados segundo os fototipos de Fitzpatrick. RESULTADOS: O fototipo Fitzpatrick III e a cicatriz mista foram mais frequentes entre os pacientes avaliados (P = 0,001). Houve associação (P = 0,025) entre as cicatrizes fibroproliferativas e os fototipos de Fitzpatrick, ou seja, quanto maior o fototipo maior a tendência de desenvolvimento de cicatrizes dos tipos queloide e mista. CONCLUSÕES: Os fototipos de pele segundo Fitzpatrick mostraram-se válidos como critério a ser utilizado em estudos de queloide e cicatriz hipertrófica.
PURPOSE: To describe a cadaver model and to compare different techniques to correct midline incisional hernia using the tension at the musculoaponeurotic layer as a parameter. METHODS: Twenty-four male cadavers were used to characterize the model. The tensile force applied to the anterior layers of the rectus abdominis muscle was measured after the linea alba was resected to create an abdominal wall defect. A dynamometer was used to measure the tensile force necessary to cause a 10-mm displacement of the tissues towards the midline. An index that allows comparison of tensile forces from different points was calculated by dividing the tensile force by the distance between the point of force application at the aponeurosis and the midline. RESULTS: Cadaver is a good model for the study of midline incisional hernia. CONCLUSION: Cadaver can be used effectively as a model to evaluate tension of the abdominal wall when tissue advancement and musculoaponeurotic flaps are performed in the repair of midline incisional hernia.
OBJETIVO: Este estudo descreve o cadáver como modelo experimental para comparar diferentes técnicas para correção da hérnia incisional mediana usando como parâmetro a tensão músculo-aponeurotica. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro cadáveres adultos masculinos foram usados para caracterizar este modelo. A força de tensão aplicada na lamina anterior do músculo reto do abdome foi medida após ressecção da linha alba criando um defeito abdominal. Um dinamômetro foi utilizado para medir a força de tensão necessária para ocasionar o deslocamento de 10-mm do tecido até a linha mediana. Um índice para comparar as forças de tensão em diferentes pontos foi calculado dividindo a força de tensão pela distancia entre o ponto de aplicação da força na aponeurose e a linha mediana. RESULTADOS: O cadáver é um bom modelo para estudo da hérnia incisional mediana. CONCLUSÃO: O cadáver pode ser utilizado efetivamente como um modelo para avaliação da tensão da parede abdominal quando o avanço de tecidos e retalhos músculo-aponeuroticos são utilizados no reparo de uma hérnia incisional mediana.
PURPOSE: To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. METHODS: Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). CONCLUSION: The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.
OBJETIVO: Investigar a relevância do termo sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial (SMAS) para propor a sua indicação para indexação como palavra-chave e inclusão na Terminologia Anatômica Internacional. MÉTODOS: Termos relacionados ao SMAS foram recuperados de artigos originais identificados por mapeamento automático nas bases ISI Web Of Science e MEDLINE (PubMed). Os termos foram agrupados a fim de formar uma estratégia de busca de alta sensibilidade, limitada a periódicos exclusivos da especialidade de Cirurgia Plástica. Destes periódicos, foram selecionados artigos publicados de janeiro de 1996 a maio de 2009. Avaliou-se o título, resumo e as palavras-chaves, computando-se todas as ocorrências de termos relacionadas ao SMAS. RESULTADOS: Recuperou-se um total de 126 artigos originais de periódicos relevantes, especializados em cirurgia plástica, e indexados nas bases mencionadas. Destes artigos, 51,6% apresentavam termos relacionados com SMAS somente no resumo, e 25,4% apresentavam termos relacionados com SMAS no título e resumo. O termo sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial estava presente como descritor em 19,8% dos artigos. As ocorrências mais freqüentes foram SMAS (71,4%) e sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial (62,7%). CONCLUSÃO: O termo SMAS, referente à estrutura em estudo, apresentou relevância suficiente para ser indexado como palavra-chave e listado na Terminologia Anatômica Internacional.
Purpose: To quantify keloid fibroblasts after irradiation with 470nm blue LED, in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts from keloid and adjacent skin have been obtained from 6 patients. Cells have been cultivated and maintained in DMEM culture medium. In Petri dishes, they were irradiated with energy doses of 6J, 12J and 18J. After 24 h, counting was done by the average of the triplicates for each sample. Results: There were no significant differences in the number of irradiated keloid fibroblasts at the studied doses (p=0.261). In adjacent skin fibroblasts, differences were observed (p=0.025) concerning the doses of 18 J and 6 J (p=0.03). Conclusions: There was a reduction in the number of adjacent skin fibroblasts irradiated with 470nm blue LED at the energy dose of 18 J compared to the ones irradiated at the energy dose of 6 J. There were no changes in keloid fibroblasts counting at any of the doses applied, 24 h after irradiation.
Objetivo: Quantificar fibroblastos de quelóide após irradiação com LED azul de 470nm, in vitro. Métodos: Foram obtidos fibroblastos de quelóide e pele adjacente, de seis pacientes. As células foram cultivadas e mantidas em meio de cultura DMEM. Em placas de Petri, receberam irradiação com doses de energia de 6J, 12J e 18J. Após 24 horas a contagem foi feita pela média da triplicata para cada amostra. Resultados: Não houve diferença na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide irradiados nas doses estudadas (p=0,261). Observou-se diferença nos fibroblastos de pele adjacente (p=0,025), com relação às doses de 18 J e 6 J (p=0,03). Conclusões: Houve redução dos fibroblastos de pele adjacente irradiados com LED azul de 470 nm na dose de energia de 18 J em relação à dose de 6 J. Não houve alteração na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide nas doses aplicadas após 24 horas da irradiação.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of capsaicin on the viability of ischemic random-pattern skin flaps in rats. METHODS:Forty EPM1-Wistar rats were randomized into two groups of 20 animals each, the capsaicin group and the control group. A random-pattern skin flap measuring 10 x 4cm was raised and a plastic barrier was placed between the flap and the donor site. After the surgical procedure, the control group was treated with an inert vehicle in the form of a cream applied uniformly to a rayon bandage which, in turn, was applied to the surface of the skin flap. The capsaicin group was treated in the same way, but in this case capsaicin was added to the cream. This procedure was repeated for two consecutive days. RESULTS: There was a significantly smaller amount of flap necrosis in the capsaicin group (35.07%) than in the control group (44.75%) (p=0.035). CONCLUSION:Topical administration of capsaicin improved the viability of ischemic random-pattern skin flaps in rats.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da capsaicina na viabilidade de retalhos isquêmicos randômicos em ratos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos EPM1-Wistar foram distribuídos ao acaso em dois grupos de 20 animais cada, um grupo capsaicina e um grupo controle. Um retalho isquêmico randômico medindo 10 x 4cm foi elevado e uma barreira plástica foi colocada entre o retalho e a área doadora. Após o procedimento cirúrgico, o grupo controle foi tratado com um veículo inerte sob a forma creme aplicado uniformemente sobre uma atadura de rayon, que, por sua vez, foi aplicada à superfície do retalho. O grupo capsaicina foi tratado da mesma forma, porém a capsaicina foi adicionada ao creme. Este procedimento foi repetido por dois dias consecutivos. RESULTADOS: Houve uma quantidade significativamente menor da necrose do retalho no grupo capsaicina (35,07%) comparado ao grupo controle (44,75%) (p=0,035). CONCLUSÃO: A administração tópica da capsaicina melhorou a viabilidade de retalhos isquêmicos randômicos em ratos.
PURPOSE: The tension at the aponeurotic edges of abdominal wall defects is an important factor of dehiscence and incisional hernia formation. The purpose of this study is to map and compare the traction force necessary for medial mobilization in various levels of the anterior rectus sheath in cadavers. METHODS: Twenty four adult male cadavers, raging from 22 to 59 years old, with the abdominal wall intact and without prior preservation techniques, were dissected. A complete excision of the linea alba was performed. Traction loops of 10 mm in diameter were made in the anterior rectus sheath and were placed: 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm below the lower edge of the umbilicus and 3, 6 and 9 cm above the upper edge of the umbilicus. Each loop was mobilized 10 mm in the medial direction, using an analog dynamometer. The values obtained in each level were compared using Friedman's analysis of Variance for p < 0.05. RESULTS: The average traction values obtained at the various levels were compared and there was no statistical significant difference. CONCLUSION: There is no variation in tension along the whole extension of the anterior rectus sheath.
OBJETIVO: A tensão na margem da aponeurose de um defeito da parede abdominal é um importante fator de deiscência e formação da hérnia incisional. O objetivo deste estudo é mapear e comparar a força de tração necessária à mobilização medial em vários níveis da lâmina anterior do músculo reto do abdome em cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro cadáveres adultos masculinos, com idade entre 22 e 59 anos, com a parede abdominal intacta e sem técnicas prévias de conservação, foram dissecados. Uma excisão completa da linha alba foi realizada. Alças de tração de 10 mm de diâmetro foram realizadas na lamina anterior do músculo reto do abdome e estavam localizadas: 2,4,6 e 8 cm abaixo da margem inferior do umbigo e 3,6 e 9 cm da margem superior do umbigo. Cada alça foi mobilizada 10 mm em direção medial, usando um dinamômetro analógico. Os valores obtidos em cada nível foram comparados usando a analise de variância de Friedman com p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os valores de tração obtidos nos vários níveis foram comparados e não apresentaram significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Não há variação de tensão por toda lamina anterior do músculo reto do abdome.
There comes a time when the understanding of the cutaneous healing process becomes essential due to the need for a precocious tissue repair to reduce the physical, social, and psychological morbidity. Advances in the knowledge on the control of interaction among cells, matrix and growth factors will provide more information on the Regenerative Medicine, an emerging area of research in medical bioengineering. However, considering the dynamism and complexity of the cutaneous healing response, it is fundamental to understand the control mechanism exerted by the interaction and synergism of both systems, cutaneous nervous and central nervous, via hypothalamus hypophysis-adrenal axis, a relevant subject, but hardly ever explored. The present study reviews the neuro-immune-endocrine physiology of the skin responsible for its multiple functions and the extreme disturbances of the healing process, like the excess and deficiency of the extracellular matrix deposition.
Aproxima-se uma época na qual é fundamental a compreensão do processo cicatricial cutâneo frente à necessidade da restauração tecidual precoce, visando a diminuição das morbidades física, social e psicológica. O avanço no conhecimento acerca do controle das interações entre as células, a matriz e os fatores de crescimento dará maiores informações à Medicina Regenerativa, área de pesquisa emergente da bioengenharia médica. Entretanto, diante do dinamismo e complexidade da resposta cicatricial cutânea torna-se indispensável o entendimento do mecanismo de controle exercido pela interação e sinergismo do sistema nervoso cutâneo e o sistema nervoso central, via eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal, tema relevante, porém, pouco abordado. O presente estudo revisa a fisiologia neuro-imuno-endócrina da pele, responsável por suas múltiplas funções, e os distúrbios extremos do processocicatricial, como o excesso e deficiência de deposição da matriz extracelular.