BACKGROUND: Red blood group genes are highly polymorphic and the distribution of alleles varies among different populations and ethnic groups. AIM: To evaluate allele polymorphisms of the Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group systems in a population of the State of Paraná METHODS: Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group polymorphisms were evaluated in 400 unrelated blood or bone marrow donors from the northwestern region of Paraná State between September 2008 and October 2009. The following techniques were used: multiplex-polymerase chain reaction genotyping for the identification of the RHD gene and RHCE*C/c genotype; allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for the RHDΨ and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction for the RHCE*E/e, KEL, FY-GATA and JK alleles. RESULTS: These techniques enabled the evaluation of the frequencies of Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd polymorphisms in the population studied, which were compared to frequencies in two populations from the eastern region of São Paulo State. CONCLUSION: The RHCE*c/c, FY*A/FY*B, GATA-33 T/T, JK*B/JK*B genotypes were more prevalent in the population from Paraná, while RHCE*C/c, FY*B/FY*B, GATA-33 C/C, JK*A/JK*B genotypes were more common in the populations from São Paulo.