Objective. Characterize the trends in mortality from cancer in Chile according to differences in educational level in the period 2000-2010 in the population over 20 years of age. Methods. Calculation of specific mortality from cancer, age-adjusted for different educational levels, for the period 2000-2010. The obtained rates were analyzed using a Poisson regression model, calculating the relative inequality index and the slope index of inequality for each year. Results. 232 541 deaths from cancer were reported in the period 2000-2010. The most frequent types were breast, stomach, and gallbladder cancer in women; and stomach, prostate, and lung cancer in men. Age-standardized mortality from cancer was greater in the lower educational levels, except for breast cancer in woman and lung cancer in men. The greatest differences were found in gallbladder cancer in women and stomach cancer in men, with specific mortality rates up to 49 and 63 times higher, respectively, for low educational levels compared to higher ones. Between 2000 and 2010, the differences in mortality by educational level were smaller for all cancers combined in both genders, for breast cancer in women, and for lung and stomach in men. Conclusions. During the period studied, mortality from cancer in Chile was strongly associated with the educational level of the population. This information should be considered when designing national strategies to reduce specific mortality from cancer in the most vulnerable groups.
Objetivo. Caracterizar la tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en Chile según diferencias por nivel educacional en el período 2000-2010 en la población mayor de 20 años. Métodos. Cálculo de las tasas de mortalidad específica por cáncer ajustadas por edad para diferentes niveles educacionales (NE), para el período 2000-2010. Las tasas obtenidas se analizaron con un modelo de regresión de Poisson, calculando el índice de desigualdad relativa (IDR) y el índice de desigualdad de la pendiente (IDP) para cada año. Resultados. Se registraron 232 541 muertes por cáncer en el período 2000-2010. Los tipos de cáncer más frecuentes fueron de mama, estómago y vesícula biliar en mujeres; y estómago, próstata y pulmón en hombres. Las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer estandarizadas por edad fueron mayores en los NE más bajos, excepto para el de mama en mujer y el de pulmón en hombres. Las mayores diferencias se encontraron en el de vesícula biliar en mujeres y el de estómago en hombres, con mayores tasas de mortalidad específica de hasta 49 y 63 veces respectivamente, para NE bajo respecto al NE alto. Entre 2000 y 2010, las diferencias en mortalidad por NE se redujeron para todos los cánceres combinados en ambos géneros, mama en mujeres, y pulmón y estómago en hombres. Conclusiones. Durante el período estudiado, la mortalidad por cáncer en Chile estuvo fuertemente asociada al NE de la población. Esta información debe ser considerada al definir estrategias nacionales para reducir la mortalidad específica por cáncer en los grupos más desprotegidos.
The objective of this study is to develop and validate a guideline for the evaluation of the clinical teaching process in radiology; Catholic University Medical School, Radiology 32 items (MEDUC-RX32). A mixed methodology was used for the development of the questionnaire; two interview groups (residents and faculty) and one individual to a radiology program head. Using a modified Delphi technique to reach an agreement, a national validity panel assessed the importance of each item. The Delphi panel refined the questionnaire from 88 to 32 items after two rounds. The final guideline was perfomed in 55 residents of the program. The final instrument shows high reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.957). The average performance evaluations of teachers was 6.23 ± 0.8 (Likert scale 0 to 7) becoming a valid and reliable guideline for teacher evaluation of programs in the specialty of radiology, in Spanish speaking countries.
El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar y validar una pauta para la evaluación del proceso de enseñanza clínica en radiología; Medicina Universidad Católica, Radiología 32 ítems (MEDUC-RX32). Se utilizó metodología mixta para el desarrollo del instrumento: dos entrevistas grupales (residentes y docentes) y una individual a un jefe de programa de radiología. Utilizando técnica Delfi modificada para lograr acuerdo, un panel de validez nacional evaluó la importancia de cada ítem. El panel Delfi refinó el instrumento de 88 a 32 ítems luego de dos rondas. La pauta final fue piloteada en 55 residentes del programa. El instrumento definitivo presenta alta confiabilidad (coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,957). El promedio de las evaluaciones del desempeño de los docentes fue de 6,23±0,8 (escala Likert 0 a 7) constituyéndose en una pauta válida y confiable para la evaluación de docentes de programas de la especialidad de radiología en países de habla hispana.
Training of postgraduate medical specialty program managers (PMSPM) is essential for the proper development of their programs. Aim: To identify the main training needs of PMSPM at a medical school. Material and Methods: A mixed-methodology approach was implemented including focus group/interviews and the administration of the Program Managers Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire (PROMANAQ) developed by an expert panel with 59 items (with two sections: relevance/performance-self-perception). Higher priority was assigned to items with high relevance and low performance. Results: Forty five PMSPM completed the PROMANAQ (81.8% response rate). Both sections of PROMANAQ were highly reliable (Cronbach alpha of 0.95/0.97 for relevance/performance-self-perception, respectively). The items with higher priority value were evaluation of clinical educators, evaluation of teaching programs and accreditation of programs. Ten PMSPM were included in the focus group (18.2% of the universe). The findings of the qualitative component were concordant with the areas explored in the questionnaire. Conclusions: The PROMANAQ is valid and reliable to identify the training needs of PMSPM. The views of PMSPM must be taken into account for faculty development planning.
Background: The Postgraduate Hospital Education Environment Measure (PHEEM) questionnaire, is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the educational environment (EE) in postgraduate medical education. Aim: To evaluate the EE perceived by the residents of a postgraduate training program using the PHEEM. Material and Methods: The PHEEM was applied in 2010-2011 in 35 specialty programs. We calculated their individual results and compared means of both global and individual domain scores of the PHEEM, by gender, university of origin and nationality. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and D study (Generalizability theory) were performed for reliability. Results: Three hundred eighteen residents were surveyed (75.7% of the total universe). The mean score of the PHEEM was 105.09 ± 22.46 (65.7% of the maximal score) which is considered a positive EE. The instrument is highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.934). The D study found that 15 subjects are required to obtain reliable results (G coefficient = 0.813). There were no significant differences between gender and university of origin. Foreigners evaluated better the EE than Chileans and racism was not perceived. The programs showed a safe physical environment and teachers with good clinical skills. The negative aspects perceived were a lack of information about working hours, insufficient academic counseling, and scanty time left for extracurricular activities. Conclusions: This questionnaire allowed us to identify positive aspects of the EE, and areas to be improved in the specialty programs. The PHEEM is a useful instrument to evaluate the EE in Spanish-speaking participants of medical specialty programs.
Background: The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) is the most valid and reliable instrument to measure the educational environment (EE) in undergraduate medical education. Aim: To evaluate the EE perceived by undergraduate medical students in Chile, using a Spanish version of the DREEM questionnaire. Material and Methods: The DREEM was applied during 2008 in third, fourth and ffith undergraduate years of six medical schools. The individual results were calculated and means of both global and individual domain scores of the DREEM were compared, by year, gender and between different Schools. Results: One thousand ninety two students (77% of the total universe of students), answered the questionnaire. The mean score of the six Schools was 113.9. The domains of Perception of Learning and Social Self-Perception obtained the lower scores, with a global outcome indicating a more positive than negative EE. Two schools obtained mean scores of 128.32 and 126.87, that were significantly higher than the global scores obtained by other schools. No relevant differences by years or gender were observed. Conclusions: There is a signifiicant variability between the six schools evaluated and two of these obtained signifiicantly better scores than the rest. The identified positive and negative areas will orient the actions to improve the EE for undergraduate medical students.