Objective: To evaluate the interrelationships between childhood maltreatment, life satisfaction (LS), and depressive symptoms, and to investigate LS as a mediating factor in the association between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Methods: The sample consisted of 342 adolescents, aged 11 to 17 years (mean = 13.3, SD = 1.52 years), recruited from a public school in Salvador, Brazil. Participants filled out instruments for the collection of sociodemographic data and evaluation of childhood maltreatment, LS, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate the mediating effect of LS. Results: We detected significant negative correlations between childhood maltreatment and LS and between LS and depressive symptoms. We observed a significant positive correlation between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. LS partially mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms, mitigating the impact of maltreatment. Conclusion: LS played an important mediating role in the association between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal studies are recommended to fully elucidate these associations, reinforcing the need for attention and care of this vulnerable population.