ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N) strongly affects plant growth. However, little is known about the effects of the ammonium/nitrate ratio on pakchoi (Brassica rapa), especially its glucosinolates (GSs) contents which are involved in plant defense and many of them benefit to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a constant N supply (8 mM) but with five ammonium/nitrate ratios (namely 0/8 mM, 2/6 mM, 4/4 mM, 6/2 mM and 8/0 mM) on the growth of pakchoi in a hydroponic system in 2 years. In both years, a higher biomass (dry weight) was in the 4/4 and 2/6 ammonium/nitrate treatments (2.3 and 2.2-fold compared to 8/0, respectively), with no significant difference in biomass between these two treatments. The biomass then decreased with increasing proportions of ammonium in the N supply from more than 10 g/pot to below 5 g/pot. The N and sulfur contents were strongly affected in the sole nitrate or ammonium treatments, as were the contents of chlorophyll, lutein, and β-carotene. Most of the individual glucosinolates (GSs) detected in pakchoi showed the highest concentrations in the sole ammonium treatment. The ammonium/nitrate ratio also affected the types of GSs. The highest proportion of indolyl GSs and the lowest proportion of aromatic GSs were in the sole ammonium treatment. We concluded that a high ammonium level decreases the biomass but increases the GSs concentrations in pakchoi. Further studies are required to explore the difference in GSs metabolism among plants supplied with different ammonium/nitrate ratios.
RESUMO O nitrogênio (N) afeta fortemente o crescimento das plantas. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos da relação amônio/nitrato no pakchoi (Brassica rapa), especialmente no conteúdo de glucosinolatos (GSs) envolvidos na defesa das plantas e muitos deles benéficos à saúde humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de um suprimento constante de N (8 mM), mas com cinco proporções de amônio/nitrato (ou seja, 0/8 mM, 2/6 mM, 4/4 mM, 6/2 mM e 8/0 mM) sobre o crescimento de pakchoi em um sistema hidropônico em 2 anos. Nos dois anos, uma maior biomassa (peso seco) foi observada nos tratamentos 4/4 e 2/6 de amônio/nitrato (2,3 e 2,2 vezes em comparação com 8/0, respectivamente), sem diferença significativa na biomassa entre esses dois tratamentos. A biomassa então diminuiu com proporções crescentes de amônio no suprimento de N de mais de 10 g/vaso para menos de 5 g/vaso. Os teores de N e enxofre foram fortemente afetados nos tratamentos com nitrato ou amônio, assim como os teores de clorofila, luteína e β-caroteno. A maioria dos glucosinolatos individuais (GSs) detectados no pakchoi apresentou as maiores concentrações no tratamento com apenas amônio. A relação amônio/nitrato também afetou os tipos de GSs. A maior proporção de indolil GSs e a menor proporção de GSs aromático estavam no tratamento com apenas amônio. Concluímos que um alto nível de amônio diminui a biomassa, mas aumenta as concentrações de GSs no pakchoi. Estudos adicionais são necessários para explorar a diferença no metabolismo dos GSs entre plantas fornecidas com diferentes proporções de amônio/nitrato.
Abstract To compare the effects of two-(2D, microplate) and three-dimensional (3D, alginate) culture systems on the in vitro growth of small antral follicles in cattle, individual follicles were separately cultured in the two culture systems for 8 days. Half of the culture medium was replaced by fresh medium every 2 days; the former medium was used to assess the amount of follicular hormone secretion using ELISA. Individual follicle morphology, diameter, and survival rate were recorded every alternate day. The results showed that in 4 days, there was no significant difference between the two systems, except that the growth rate of follicles in 2D system was relatively faster. After 4 days, estradiol concentration in 3D system was higher than that in 2D system. However, progesterone concentration was lower than that in the 2D system. The survival rate and oocyte quality of follicles in 2D system were significantly lower than those in 3D system on day 8. The follicle diameter slightly increased (30-60 μm) in the entire process. Taken together, for in vitro culture of follicles within 4 days, the 2D culture system is more suitable. However, when the culture duration is >4 days, the 3D culture system is more suitable.
Abstract Introduction: Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3, a serine/threonine kinase that functions downstream of the PI3K signaling pathway, plays a critical role in neoplastic processes. It is expressed by various tumors and contributes to carcinogenesis. Objective: The objective was to investigate serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, to study the anti-tumor effects of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 shRNA by inhibiting its expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and to discuss the potential implications of our findings. Methods: Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 protein expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, HNE-1, HONE-1, and SUNE-1) and the human immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelium cell line NP69 were assayed by western blotting. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 expression in 42 paraffin-embedded nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues were performed by immunohistochemistry. MTT assay, flow cytometry, and scratch tests were performed after CNE-2 cells were transfected with the best serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 shRNA plasmid selected by western blotting using lipofectamine to study its effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. Results: Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 was overexpressed in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cells. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 expression decreased markedly after CNE-2 cells were transfected with the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 shRNA, leading to strong inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. In addition, the apoptosis rate increased in CNE-2 cells after serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 knockdown. Conclusion: Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 expression was more frequently observed as the nasopharyngeal epithelium progresses from normal tissue to carcinoma. This suggests that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 contributes to the multistep process of NPC carcinogenesis. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 represents a target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma therapy, and a basis exists for the further investigation of this adjuvant treatment modality for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Resumo Introdução: A quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide, uma serina/treonina quinase que funciona downstream da via de sinalização PI3K, desempenha um papel crítico nos processos neoplásicos. É expressa por vários tumores e contribui para a carcinogênese. Objetivo: Investigar a expressão de quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide no carcinoma nasofaríngeo, estudar os efeitos antitumorais do shRNA da quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide, que inibem sua expressão em células de carcinoma nasofaríngeo, e discutir as implicações potenciais de nossos achados. Método: A expressão de proteína quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide em linhagens de células de carcinoma nasofaríngeo (CNE-1, CNE-2, HNE-1, HONE-1 e SUNE-1) e a linhagem de células humanas imortalizadas do epitélio nasofaríngeo NP69 foram avaliadas por Western blot. A expressão da quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide em 42 tecidos de CNF embebidos em parafina foi feita por imuno-histoquímica. Testes com MTT, citometria de fluxo e testes de raspagem foram feitos após as células CNE-2 terem sido transfectadas com o melhor plasmídeo shRNA da quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide selecionado por Western blot, com o uso de lipofectamina para estudar seu efeito na proliferação, apoptose e migração celular. Resultados: Foi observada uma sobre-expressão da quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide em tecidos e células de carcinoma nasofaríngeo humanas. A expressão de quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide diminuiu acentuadamente após as células CNE-2 terem sido transfectadas com o shRNA da quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide, conduzindo a forte inibição de proliferação e migração celular. Além disso, a taxa de apoptose aumentou nas células CNE-2 após o knockdown da quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide. Conclusão: A expressão de quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide foi observada com maior frequência à medida que o epitélio nasofaríngeo progride de tecido normal para carcinoma. Isso sugere que a quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide contribui para o processo multietapas da carcinogênese do carcinoma nasofaríngeo. A quinase 3 sérica induzida por glicocorticoide representa um alvo para a terapia do carcinoma nasofaríngeo e há uma base para a investigação adicional dessa modalidade de tratamento adjuvante para o carcinoma nasofaríngeo.
ABSTRACT We propose a segmentation algorithm for raisin extraction. The proposed approach consists of the following aspects. Deep learning is used to predict the number of raisins in each connected region, and the shape features such as the roundness, area, X-axis value for the centroid, Y-axis value for the centroid, axis length and perimeter of each region will be used to establish the prediction model. Morphological analysis, based on edge parameters including the polar axis, polar angle and angular velocity, is applied to search for the suitable break points that are useful for identifying the dividing lines between two adjacent raisins. To make our segmentation more accurate, some machine-learning algorithms such as the random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM) and deep learning (deep neural network, DNN) are applied to predict the number of raisins and to decide whether the raisins need more segmentation. The performance of the three models is compared, and the DNN is the most accurate.
This paper presented a study of friction and wear on 9Cr18Mo when rubbed against other materials (steel-304, steel-440C, steel-GCr15 or silicon nitride ceramic ball) at high temperature conditions. Friction and wear tests were carried out with universal a friction and wear testing machine. The wear morphology was analyzed by a Nanovea three-dimensional profilometer and trinocular positive Gang metallurgical microscope. The Vickers hardness of 9Cr18Mo at different temperatures was tested by means of a high temperature vacuum hardometer. Results showed that the friction and wear on the contact surface of the 9Cr18Mo sample are higher when the hardness of counter materials is higher than or similar to that of the sample. Under dry sliding conditions, the 9Cr18Mo sample surface presented various degrees of adhesion, plowing and pit, particularly if tested in the presence of a high temperature environment. During the worn stages, the counter materials on the worn surface successively produced cracks, crack growth, and wear debris under the action of load. Moreover, the frictional pair 9Cr18Mo-ceramic showed good anti-wear behavior at 400 °C that proved the anti high temperature performance of 9Cr18Mo.
This work presented the first study of organocatalytic behaviors of inherently chiral calixarenes substituted at the lower rim. A pair of N, O-type enantiomers based on inherently chiral calixarenes substituted at the lower rim were readily synthesized and applied to catalyze Henry reaction between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane. Their organocatalytic reaction can afford the desired products in excellent yields (up to 99%) but poor enantioselectivities (up to 7.5% ee).
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the possibility of using peripheral-blood presurfactant protein B (Pro-SFTPB) for screening non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 873 healthy volunteers and 165 lung cancer patients hospitalized in the Fifth People’s Hospital of Dalian were tested Pro-SFTPB once every half year from January 2014 to September 2015. The healthy volunteers were also conducted spiral computed tomography (CT) examination once every year. The data were then com-pared and statistically analyzed. Results: The positive expression rate of Pro-SFTPB in NSCLC was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers, and significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma; additionally, the expression rate was increased with the in-crease of smoking index, and the intergroup differences showed statistical signifi-cance (p≤0.05). The positive rate of newly diagnosed lung cancer was 29.55%, higher than healthy volunteers (22.34%), but there was no significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion: Pro-SFTPB is over expressed in non-small cell lung cancer, especially in lung adeno-carcinoma, but it can’t be used as a clinical screening tool for lung cancer.
Any compression of testicular arteries may lead to loss of spermatogenesis and gonadal hormone production, existence of the variational arteries is accountable in cases of vasoligation, orchidopexy and other surgical approach on them. Anomalies of the testicular blood arteries were observed during dissection of the pelvic cavity in a 68-year-old male cadaver. This report describes a very rare case of lack of testicular arteries. For the blood supply to the testis, thick deferential arteries form some vascular winding and loops and course accompanied by deferent duct to the testis. This case report would serve as ray of light for knowledge of the possible variations of the testicular arteries during surgical procedures.
Cualquier compresión de las arterias testiculares puede conducir a la pérdida de la espermatogénesis y la producción de hormonas gonadales. La existencia de variaciones en las arterias testiculares es relevante en los casos de vasectomía, orquidopexia y otros tipos de abordaje quirúrgico. Se observaron anomalías de las arterias testiculares durante la disección de la cavidad pélvica de un cadáver de sexo masculino de 68 años de edad. En este trabajo se describe un caso muy poco frecuente de ausencia de arterias testiculares. Para el suministro sanguíneo del testículo, se encontraron arterias deferentes gruesas que producen sinuosidad y tortuosidad vascular junto al conducto deferente en los testículos. Este caso podría ser útil para el conocimiento de las posibles variaciones de las arterias testiculares durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos.