Abstract The aim of this was describe an infection by Kudoa orbicularis in freshwater catfish Trachelyopterus galeatus. A sample of 80 specimens of T. galeatus was collected in the municipality of Cachoeira do Arari, Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil. Pseudocysts were found in the muscle fibers of the epaxial and hypaxial regions of 85.0% of the specimens analyzed, reflecting a high infection rate. The pseudocysts contained spores that were pseudo-square in shape, with a mean length of 4.65 µm (range: 4.04–5.54) and mean width of 1.53 µm (1.56–1.74). Analyses on the morphology of the spores and a partial 934-bp sequence of the SSU rDNA gene confirmed that the microparasite was Kudoa orbicularis. This is the second record of this microparasite in a siluriform host in the Brazilian Amazon region.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a infecção por Kudoa orbicularis em Trachelyopterus galeatus. Foram analisados 80 espécimes de T. galeatus capturados no município de Cachoeira do Arari, ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. A presença de pseudocistos nas fibras musculares das regiões epiaxial e hipoaxial em 85,0% dos exemplares analisados, mostra alto grau de infecção. Os pseudocistos continham esporos de formato pseudoquadrado, medindo 4,65 (4,04-5,54) µm de comprimento e 5,25 (4,78-5,98) µm de largura, com quatro cápsulas polares de tamanho iguais medindo 2,22 (2,05-2,32) µm de comprimento e 1,53 (1,56-1,74) µm de largura. Através das análises morfológicas dos esporos e molecular de uma sequência parcial de 934bps do gene SSU rDNA, confirma que o microparasito é Kudoa orbicularis, sendo este o segundo registro desse microparasito em hospedeiro da ordem Siluriformes da Amazônia brasileira.
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the genetic variability of the broodstocks of tambaqui hatcheries in the Brazilian state of Pará. Samples were obtained from the caudal fin of 110 broodstocks from one hatchery in each of four municipalities (Santarém, Peixe-Boi, Breu-Branco, and Ulianópolis), representing all the individuals of each hatchery stock. The samples were genotyped using the multiplex system microsatellite markers. Data were used to calculate observed and expected heterozygosity, number of alleles per locus, and allelic richness. The effective population size and inbreeding coefficient were also calculated. The genetic differentiation between populations was evaluated by using FST, and population structuring by the most likely number of genetically homogenous populations and Unweighted Pair Group Method (UPGMA); the arithmetic means were based on Nei's. The indices indicated a loss of genetic variability in the broodstocks from Ulianópolis, Peixe-Boi, and Breu-Branco in comparison with wild tambaqui populations, although this was not apparent in the Santarém stock. A moderate level of genetic differentiation was found among the tambaqui broodstocks based on the FST estimates, which were reinforced by the structuring found in the Bayesian analysis and UPGMA. This reflects the domestication process, given that no such structuring is found in natural tambaqui populations. This moderate genetic differentiation associated with the loss of genetic variability found in the four tambaqui broodstocks from the state of Pará provides important insights for the development of future programs of genetic improvement, as well as the conservation of the genetic diversity of these stocks.
Abstract Colossoma macropomum is the second largest scaled fish of the Amazon. It is economically important for commercial fisheries and for aquaculture, but few studies have examined the diversity and genetic structure of natural populations of this species. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of genetic variability and connectivity that exist between three natural populations of C. macropomum from the Amazon basin. In total, 247 samples were collected from the municipalities of Tefé, Manaus, and Santarém. The populations were genotyped using a panel of 12 multiplex microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity found in these populations was high and similar to other populations described in the literature. These populations showed a pattern of high gene flow associated with the lack of a genetic structure pattern, indicating that the number of migrants per generation and recent migration rates are high. The values of the FST, RST, and exact test of differentiation were not significant for pairwise comparisons between populations. The Bayesian population clustering analysis indicated a single population. Thus, the data provide evidence for high genetic diversity and high gene flow among C. macropomum populations in the investigated region of the Amazon basin. This information is important for programs aiming at the conservation of natural populations.
Different risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been identified, including hereditary abnormalities in the mechanisms of coagulation and fibrinolysis. We investigated five genetic polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, TAFI A152G and TAFI T1053C) associated with VTE in individuals from the city of Belém in the Brazilian Amazon who had no history of VTE. No significant difference was found between the observed and expected genotype frequencies for the loci analyzed. We found high frequencies of MTHFR C677T (33.9%) and TAFI T1053C (74%) and low frequencies of FVL (1.6%), FII G20210A (0.8%) and TAFI A152G (0.8%). The FVL G1691A, FII G20210A and MTHFR C677T frequencies were similar to those for European populations and populations of European descent living in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The frequency of the two TAFI mutations in the Belém individuals was not significantly different from that described for individuals from Ribeirão Preto. We suggest that the risks for VTE in the population of Belém are of the same magnitude as that observed in European populations and in populations with an expressive European contribution.