Abstract According to the conditions of today's world, design of resistant structures against blast loading is an important subject that requires special attention. Thus, given the benefits of optimization in engineering, development and assessment of optimization methods for optimum design of structures against blast is of great importance. In this research, the optimum design of steel frame structures against blast loading is investigated. For this purpose first an optimization methodology is proposed. In the proposed method the structural analysis is performed using nonlinear explicit finite element analysis. Based on the proposed method a framework is developed and three numerical examples are investigated using different numerical optimization techniques. Results of this study show that by using nonlinear explicit FE analysis as the structural analysis method and NLPQLP optimization technique as the optimization method, the current optimization problem can be performed effectively, because the procedure is relatively accurate and computationally inexpensive.
ABSTRACT Ischemia-reperfusion injury was seen in strokes, myocardial infarctions, acute kidney injury, mesenteric ischemia, liver and systemic shock. Renal ischemia-reperfusion is more importance in the setting of kidney transplantation that affects distant organs. In this study forty Male Albino Wistar rats (200-250g) were randomly divided in four group (n=10) including control, sham operation group, nephrectomy and IRI group. All rats anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) and maintained the core body temperature at approximately 37°C. For inducing IRI group, it was performed right nephrectomy, and in continuing, the left kidney pedicle occluded to 45 min via nontraumatic microvascular clamp for making ischemia that followed 24 hours reperfusion. TUNEL assay was used to detect the cardiac apoptotic cells. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) procedure was used to histopathological assessment and glycogen accumulation respectively. There was more heart damage at 24 h reperfusion in IRI group. Renal IRI group showed myocardial degeneration, necrosis and increasing connective tissue in myofibril. There were apparent hypertrophy and swelling of myofibril, fragmentation and vacuolization of sarcoplasm. In addition, it was shown elevated apoptotic cell at 24 hours reperfusion in renal IRI group than sham group. There were increases of glycogen accumulation in cardimyocyte of renal IRI group. Our findings suggest that renal IRI-induced cardiac damage, accompanied by an accumulation of glycogen granules, induced apoptosis and histological changes in cardiomyocytes.