Abstract Isolated anterior dislocation of the radial head is rarely reported. To date, only five cases have been reported in the world literature. In all of these cases, the patients presented with restricted supination-pronation movements of the forearm with maintained elbow flexion-extension. We report an unusual case of isolated anterior radial head dislocation in an 18-year-old male, who presented with maintained supination-pronation movements of the forearm but restricted elbow flexion-extension. Closed reduction was attempted, but it failed. Hence, an open reduction was performed. However, the reduction was unstable due to rupture of the annular ligament. Hence, the repair of the annular ligament was performed, and a radio-ulnar Kirschner wire was passed to maintain the reduction of the proximal radio-ulnar joint, thus keeping the annular ligament stress-free, facilitating its healing. At 12 months of follow-up, the patient had normal elbow function and complete range of motion.
Resumo A literatura sobre a luxação anterior isolada da cabeça do rádio é escassa, com apenas cinco casos relatados no mundo inteiro até hoje. Em todos esses casos, os pacientes apresentaram movimentos de supinação-pronação restritos do antebraço, e manutenção da flexão-extensão do cotovelo. Os autores apresentam um caso incomum de luxação de cabeça radial anterior isolada em um paciente do sexo masculino de 18 anos, que apresentou movimentos de supinação-pronação no antebraço e restrição na flexão-extensão do cotovelo. A redução fechada foi tentada, mas sem sucesso. Assim, foi feita a redução aberta. No entanto, a redução foi instável devido à ruptura do ligamento anular. Por isso, o reparo do ligamento anular foi realizado, e um fio de Kirschner rádio-ulnar foi inserido para manter a redução da articulação rádio-ulnar proximal, evitando estresse sobre o ligamento anular, facilitando sua cicatrização. Aos 12 meses de acompanhamento, o paciente apresentava função normal do cotovelo e amplitude de movimento completa.
Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15-1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17-5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23-5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24-76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities.
Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS), an acute and fatal disease of cattle and buffalo is primarily caused by serotype B:2 or E:2 of Pasteurella multocida. The transferrin binding protein A (TbpA) has been found to act as immunogen and potent vaccine candidate in various Gram negative bacteria including P. multocida. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of this antigen as a DNA vaccine against HS in mice model. The tbpA gene of P. multocida serotype B:2 was cloned in a mammalian expression vector alone and along with murine IL2 gene as immunological adjuvant to produce monocistronic and bicistronic DNA vaccine constructs, respectively. The immune response to DNA vaccines was evaluated based on serum antibody titres and lymphocyte proliferation assay. A significant increase in humoral and cell mediated immune responses was observed in mice vaccinated with DNA vaccines as compared to non immunized group. Additionally, the bicistronic DNA vaccine provided superior immune response and protection level following challenge as compared to monocistronic construct. The study revealed that DNA vaccine presents a promising approach for the prevention of HS.