ABSTRACT Purpose: Enucleation of a large prostate is the best surgical choice for patients refractory to clinical treatment (1,2). Since the first robot-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) was described (3,4), some technical modifications (5–7) and different approaches to reach the adenoma have been proposed (8,9). The aim of this video is to demonstrate three different techniques of RASP. Materials and Methods: The first procedure begins with a transversal incision over the bladder neck, the second is a transvesical approach and the last one is a Retzius-sparing RASP. All techniques were performed with a vesico-urethral anastomosis. Results: Three patients underwent RASP, each one with a different approach. Patients presented mean age of 66±4.4 years, PSA baseline level of 7.8±3ng/mL, IPSS score of 17.7±4.5, maximum urine flow of 8.3±1.5mL/seg and 122.3±11.2cm3 of prostate volume. The mean operative time was 63±8 minutes, estimated blood loss of 106.7±11.5mL, prostate weight of the surgical specimen of 106.3±8 grams and 1 day of length of stay. No continuous bladder irrigation was required and there was no complication. The mean postoperative PSA and IPSS were 0.7±0.3ng/mL, 4.7±1.5. The maximum urine flow raised to 20±4.4mL/seg. Conclusions: RASP with vesico-urethral anastomosis allowed minimal blood loss, short length of stay and great functional outcomes. All the three approaches allowed to perform this technique in a safe way, while showing different alternatives to reach the adenoma.
ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Local prostate cancer recurrence is usually treated with salvage radiation (sRDT) with or without adjuvant therapy. However, surgical resection could be an option. We aim to present the surgical technique for robot - assisted laparoscopic resection prostate cancer local recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and sRDT in 2 cases. Patients and method: First case depicts a 70 year - old man who underwent RP in 2001 and sRDT in 2004. Following adjuvant therapy, patient had biochemical recurrence. MRI showed a solid mass in the prostatic fossa close to vesicourethral anastomosis, measuring 2.1 cm and PET / CT revealed hyper caption significant uptake in the prostatic fossa. Second case is a 59 year - old man who underwent RP in 2010 and sRDT in 2011. Again, patient presented with biochemical recurrence. PET / CT showed hyper caption in the prostatic fossa. Biopsy conformed a prostate adenocarcinoma. Both patients underwent robot - assisted extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection and local recurrence resection. A standard 4 robotic arms port placement was utilized. Results: Both procedures were uneventfully performed in less than 3 hours and there were no complications. Pathological examination showed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 and 8 in the first and second case, respectively; surgical margins and lymph nodes were negative. After 6 months of follow-up, continence was not affected and both patients presented with PSA < 0.15 ng / mL. Conclusion: Robot - assisted laparoscopic resection of prostate cancer local recurrence after RP and sRDT detected by PSMA PET / CT seems to be safe in experienced hands. It may postpone adjuvant therapy in selected cases.
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the length hospital stay and predictors of prolonged hospitalization after RRP performed in a high-surgical volume teaching institution, and analyze the rate of unplanned visits to the office, emergency care, hospital readmissions and perioperative complications rates. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a standardized database for patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing RRP in our institution between January/2010 - January/2012. A logistic regression model including preoperative variables was initially built in order to determine the factors that predict prolonged hospital stay before the surgical procedure; subsequently, a second model including both pre and intraoperative variables was analyzed. Results: 1011 patients underwent RRP at our institution were evaluated. The median hospital stay was 2 days, and 217 (21.5%) patients had prolonged hospitalization. Predictors of prolonged hospital stay among the preoperative variables were ICC (OR. 1.40 p=0.003), age (OR 1.050 p<0.001), ASA score of 3 (OR. 3.260 p<0.001), prostate volume on USG-TR (OR, 1.005 p=0.038) and African-American race (OR 2.235 p=0.004); among intra and postoperative factors, operative time (OR 1.007 p=0.022) and the presence of any complications (OR 2.013 p=0.009) or major complications (OR 2.357 p=0.01) were also correlated independently with prolonged hospital stay. The complication rate was 14.5%. Conclusions: The independent predictors of prolonged hospitalization among preoperative variables were CCI, age, ASA score of 3, prostate volume on USG-TR and African-American race; amongst intra and postoperative factors, operative time, presence of any complications and major complications were correlated independently with prolonged hospital stay.
Summary Objective: To evaluate the relation between serum total testosterone (TT) and prostate cancer (PCa) grade and the effect of race and demographic characteristics on such association. Method: We analyzed 695 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), of whom 423 had serum TT collected. Patients were classified as having hypogonadism or eugonadism based on two thresholds of testosterone: threshold 1 (300 ng/dL) and threshold 2 (250 ng/dL). We evaluated the relation between TT levels and a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7 in RP specimens. Outcomes were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses, accounting for race and other demographic predictors. Results: Out of 423 patients, 37.8% had hypogonadism based on the threshold 1 and 23.9% based on the threshold 2. Patients with hypogonadism, in both thresholds, had a higher chance of GS ≥ 7 (OR 1.79, p=0.02 and OR 2.08, p=0.012, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, TT, body mass index (BMI) and race, low TT (p=0.023) and age (p=0.002) were found to be independent risk factors for GS ≥ 7. Among Black individuals, low serum TT was a stronger predictor of high-grade disease compared to White men (p=0.02). Conclusion: Hypogonadism is independently associated to higher GS in localized PCa. The effect of this association is significantly more pronounced among Black men and could partly explain aggressive characteristics of PCa found in this race.
Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre testosterona sérica total (TT) e grau do câncer de próstata (CP) e o efeito da raça e de características demográficas sobre essa associação. Método: Foram analisados 695 pacientes submetidos a prostatectomia radical (PR), dos quais 423 tinham medidas dos níveis séricos de TT. Os pacientes foram classificados como portadores de hipogonadismo ou eugonadismo com base em dois limites de testosterona: limite 1 (300 ng/dL) e limite 2 (250 ng/dL). Avaliou-se a relação entre nível de TT e escore Gleason (GS) ≥ 7 em amostras de PR. Os resultados foram avaliados por análises univariada e multivariada, com ajuste para raça e outros fatores prognósticos demográficos. Resultados: Do total de 423 pacientes, 37,8% apresentavam hipogonadismo com base no limite 1, e 23,9% com base no limite 2. Os pacientes com hipogonadismo, independentemente do limite de referência, tiveram uma chance maior de GS ≥ 7 (OR 1,79, p=0,02 e OR 2,08, p=0,012, respectivamente). Na análise multivariada, após ajuste para idade, TT, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e raça, baixo TT (p=0,023) e idade (p=0,002) foram considerados fatores de risco independentes para GS ≥ 7. Entre os indivíduos negros, baixo TT sérico foi mais preditivo de doença de alto grau em comparação com os brancos (p=0,02). Conclusão: O hipogonadismo é independentemente associado a escores mais altos de GS no CP localizado. O efeito dessa associação é significativamente mais pronunciado entre homens negros, o que poderia explicar, em parte, as características agressivas do CP observadas nessa população.
ABSTRACT Introduction and objective Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is indicated for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) with residual disease after chemotherapy. Although the gold standard approach is still the open surgery, few cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND have been described. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND. Patient and method A 30 year-old asymptomatic man presented with left testicular swelling for 2 months. Physical examination revealed an enlarged and hard left testis. Alpha-fetoprotein (>1000ng/mL) and beta-HCG (>24.000U/L) were increased. Beta-HCG increased to >112.000U/L in less than one month. The patient underwent a left orchiectomy. Pathological examination showed a mixed NSGCT (50% embryonal carcinoma; 30% teratoma; 10% yolk sac; 10% choriocarcinoma). Computed tomography scan revealed a large tumor mass close to the left renal hilum (10x4x4cm) and others enlarged paracaval and paraortic lymph nodes (T2N3M1S3-stage III). Patient was submitted to 4 cycles of BEP with satisfactory response. Residual mass was suggestive of teratoma. Based on these findings, he was submitted to a robot-assisted RPLND. Results RPLND was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 3.5 hours. Blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. Pathological examination showed a pure teratoma. After 6 months of follow-up, patient is asymptomatic with an alpha-fetoprotein of 2.9ng/mL and an undetectable beta-HCG. Conclusion Robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND is a feasible procedure with acceptable morbidity even for post chemotherapy patients when performed by an experienced surgeon.
ABSTRACTIntroduction and objective:Radical prostatectomy is a first-line treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, in some cases, biochemical recurrence associated with imaging-detected nodal metastases may happen. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for salvage lymph node dissection after radical prostatectomy.Materials and Methods:A 70 year-old asymptomatic man presented with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 7.45ng/ mL. Digital rectal examination was normal and trans-rectal prostate biopsy revealed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4). Pre-operative computed tomography scan and bone scintigraphy showed no metastatic disease. In other service, the patient underwent a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy plus obturador lymphadenectomy. Pathologic examination showed a pT3aN0 tumor. After 6 months of follow-up, serum PSA was 1.45ng/mL. Further investigation with 11C–Choline PET/CT revealed only a 2-cm lymph node close to the left internal iliac artery. The patient was counseled for salvage lymph node dissection.Results:Salvage lymph node dissection was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 1.5 hour, blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. After 12 months of follow-up, his PSA was undetectable with no other adjuvant therapy.Conclusion:Robotic salvage pelvic lymph node dissection is an effective option for treatment of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and only pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by C11-Choline PET/CT.
OBJECTIVES: Objective parameters in computed tomography (CT) scans that could predict calyceal access during percutaneous nephrolithotomy have not been evaluated. These parameters could improve access planning for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We aimed to determine which parameters extracted from a preoperative multiplanar reconstructed CT could predict renal calyceal access during a percutaneous nephrolithotomy. METHODS: From January 2009 through April 2011, 230 patients underwent 284 percutaneous nephrolithotomies at our institution. Sixteen patients presented with complete staghorn calculi, and 11 patients (13 renal units) were analyzed. Five parameters were extracted from a preoperative reconstructed CT and compared with the surgical results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. RESULTS: Fifty-eight calyces were studied, with an average of 4.4 calyces per procedure. A rigid nephroscope was used to access a particular calyx, and a univariate analysis showed that the entrance calyx had a smaller length (2.7 vs. 3.98 cm, p = 0.018). The particular calyx to be accessed should have a smaller length (2.22 vs. 3.19 cm, p = 0.012), larger angles (117.6 vs. 67.96, p<0.001) and larger infundibula (0.86 vs. 0.61 cm, p = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis, the only independent predictive factor for accessing a particular calyx was the angle between the entrance calyx and the calyx to be reached (OR 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.053-1.256, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The angle between calyces obtained by multiplanar CT reconstruction is the only predictor of calyx access.