ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify whether there is an association between types of storage and categories of commercialization and use of grains, group the types of storage with the categories of commercialization, and group static and dynamic capacities of the units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The data were obtained from the Brazilian Registry System of Storage Units for the 2014/2015 season. The association between variables under study was carried out with the chi-square test of independence and correspondence analysis. The cluster analysis consisted of the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and considered a measure of mixed dissimilarity obtained for sets composed of qualitative and quantitative variables. A significant association was observed between the type of silo battery with the grain usage characteristic and cooperatives that commercialize the grain for use in the domestic market (CICOOPT); between the bulk warehouse and cooperatives that commercialize the grain in the foreign market (CIECOOPT); and between the silo and grain sellers who commercialize the grain in the domestic market (CI). Most types of storage units were grouped in Group 1, with a predominance of the CI characteristic and small to medium size static and dynamic capacity.
ABSTRACT Spatial variability description of soil chemical properties by thematic maps depends substantially on suitable geostatistical models. One of the parameters composing a geostatistical model is nugget effect. This study aimed to evaluate the simultaneous influence of nugget effect and sampling design on geostatistical model estimation and estimation of soil chemical properties at unsampled sites, considering simulated data. Our results will be used as scientific basis for spatial variability analyses of soil chemical properties in agricultural areas. Given the simulation results and agricultural data, we concluded that the high nugget effect values obtained here reduced spatial estimation efficiency. Moreover, a systematic sampling design promoted the least accurate estimates of geostatistical model and at non-sampled sites. Despite that, these nugget effect estimates should be kept in the analysis. However, further studies will be needed to investigate which factors are responsible for such high nugget effect values.
ABSTRACT In the study of spatial variability of soil attributes, it is essential to define a sampling plan with adequate sample size. This study aimed to evaluate, through simulated data, the influence of parameters of the geostatistical model and sampling configuration on the optimization process, and resize and reduce the sample size of a sampling configuration of a commercial area composed of 102 points. For this, an optimization process called genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize the efficiency of the geostatistical model estimation based on the Fisher information matrix. The simulated data evidenced that the variation of the nugget effect or practical range did not significantly alter the sample size. GA was efficient in reducing the sample size, determining for soil chemical attributes a sample size between 30 and 40 points (29.41 to 39.22% of the initial sampling grid). The presence of spatial dependence was observed for all soil chemical attributes in the two sampling configurations (initial and optimized). The optimized sampling configuration evidenced an increase in trend intensity in the north direction and a more efficient estimation of parameters of the linear spatial regression model.
Abstract The uniformity of water application is an important factor in the evaluation of sprinkler irrigation systems. This uniformity depends on the type of sprinkler and its operating conditions, such as the arrangement and spacing between the sprinklers in the area; velocity and wind direction during the period of water application and the pressure variation of the irrigation system. The objective of this study was to model, analyze and compare the structure of spatial dependence, as well as the spatial variability of the water depths applied by a sprinkler irrigation system with compensating and non-compensating sprinklers, using geostatistical methods and measurements of accuracy or similarity between the applied water depth maps. The experiment was carried out in an agricultural area, in the city of Cascavel-Paraná-Brazil. A total area of 10 × 10 m was used, with 04 compensating and 04 non-compensating sprinklers installed at a height of 1.5 m. For each type of sprinkler, water levels were measured in 100 collectors spaced 1 × 1 m in the study area in 32 trials. On each test sprinkling was carried out for one hour. The conditions of wind, temperature and air humidity were evaluated at the beginning of each test and at 10-minute intervals with a climatological station. As the geostatistical analysis showed the existence of directional trends, the coordinates were incorporated as covariates to the linear spatial model in the study of the spatial dependence of the average depth of the irrigation water for the two types of sprinklers. The spatial dependence structure that best fits the data when using the compensating sprinklers was the Gaussian model and when the non-compensating sprinklers were used, it was the exponential model. The spatial variability maps of average irrigation water depth (mm) of the trials, obtained by universal kriging, revealed that for both sprinklers there was an increase in the mean level average values in the northwest-southeast direction (135° in the azimuth system) in the area under study, influenced by wind direction and velocity during the execution of the experiment.
ABSTRACT Spatial variability depends on the sampling configuration and characteristics associated with the georeferenced phenomenon, such as geometric anisotropy. This study aimed to determine the influence of the sampling design on parameter estimation in an anisotropic geostatistical model and the spatial estimation of a georeferenced variable at unsampled locations. Datasets were simulated with geometric anisotropy, considering five values for the anisotropic ratio (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), and three sampling designs: lattice, random and lattice plus close pairs. The simulation results were used as a reference to select anisotropic models to describe the spatial dependence structure in chemical soil properties. For each dataset (with either simulated or chemical soil properties), the values of the georeferenced variables at unsampled locations were estimated by kriging, considering estimated isotropic and anisotropic geostatistical models. The choice of the sampling design influenced the spatial estimation of the georeferenced variable and the quality of the estimation of the geostatistical anisotropic model. The incorporation of geometric anisotropy in the spatial estimation of simulated data sets and soil chemical properties produced differences in the spatial estimation and improved the level of detail of subregions in thematic maps.
ABSTRACT The survey information from growing regions, the interaction with the vegetation index and climatic variables is of great importance in the search for soybean productivity increase. Paraná is the second largest soybean producer in Brazil and presents great spatial variability, both in periods of the crop cycle as in soil and climate. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial correlation of soybean productivity, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and agrometeorological variables (water balance, global radiation and average temperature) in the state of Paraná, on a decendial scale, using the Moran global autocorrelation index between the 2010/2011 and 2012/2013 crop years. Similarity was found in the average productivities in 2010/2011 and 2012/2013. In 2011/2012 the state average was 2.38 t ha−1 lower in 10.19% compared to the national average, caused by the water deficit in flowering and grain filling phases. As a consequence, spatial autocorrelation indicated a higher similarity in productivity among municipalities with a Moran index of 0.735. The use of vegetation indices and agrometeorological variables allowed the identification of different sowing periods between regions and great climatic variability, influencing the soybean productivity.
Abstract Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum thyrotropin (TSH), insulin resistance (IR), and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in a sample of overweight and obese Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A retrospective, longitudinal analysis of 199 overweight and obese pubescent adolescents was performed. The TSH and free T4 (fT4) levels, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory test results of these patients were analyzed. Results: 27 individuals (13.56%) presented with TSH levels above the normal level (subclinical hypothyroidism [SCH]). Their waist circumference (WC) was significantly higher than those of euthyroid individuals. Serum TSH was positively correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Using TSH and BMI as independent variables, TSH levels were shown to be independently related to HOMA-IR (p = 0.001) and TG (p = 0.007). Among euthyroid subjects, individuals with TSH values <2.5 mIU/mL exhibited statistically significant decreases in waist-to-hip ratio, HDL-C levels, and HOMA-IR scores and a tendency toward lower WC values. Conclusion: SCH in overweight and obese adolescents appears to be associated with excess weight, especially visceral weight. In euthyroid adolescents, there appears to be a direct relationship between TSH and some CRF. In conclusion, in the present sample of overweight and obese adolescents, TSH levels appear to be associated with IR and CRF.
Resumo Objetivo Investigar a relação entre tireotrofina sérica (TSH), resistência à insulina (RI) e fatores de risco cardiovascular (FRC) em uma amostra de adolescentes brasileiros acima do peso e obesos. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise longitudinal retrospectiva de 190 adolescentes púberes acima do peso e obesos. Foram analisados os níveis de TSH e T4 livre (T4l), as medidas antropométricas e os resultados de exames laboratoriais desses pacientes. Resultados 27 indivíduos (13,56%) apresentaram níveis de TSH acima do normal (hipotireoidismo subclínico (HSC)). Eles apresentaram circunferência da cintura (CC) significativamente maior que os indivíduos eutireoideos. A TSH sérica foi positivamente correlacionada ao índice do modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR), triglicerídeos (TG) e lipoproteína de alta densidade-colesterol (HDL-C). Usando TSH e IMC como variáveis independentes, os níveis de TSH estavam relacionados ao HOMA-IR (p = 0.001) e a TG (p = 0.007) de forma independente. Entre os pacientes eutireoideos, indivíduos com valores de TSH < 2.5 mIU/mL apresentaram reduções estatisticamente significativas na razão cintura/quadril, nos níveis de HDL-C e nos escores de HOMA-IR e tendência a menores valores de CC. Conclusão O HSC em adolescentes acima do peso e obesos parece estar associado ao excesso de peso, principalmente de peso visceral. Em adolescentes eutireoideos, parece haver uma relação direta entre TSH e alguns FRC. Concluindo, em nossa amostra de adolescentes acima do peso e obesos, os níveis de TSH parecem estar associados a RI e FRC.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare thematic maps of soybean yield for different sampling grids, using geostatistical methods (semivariance function and kriging). The analysis was performed with soybean yield data in t ha-1 in a commercial area with regular grids with distances between points of 25x25 m, 50x50 m, 75x75 m, 100x100 m, with 549, 188, 66 and 44 sampling points respectively; and data obtained by yield monitors. Optimized sampling schemes were also generated with the algorithm called Simulated Annealing, using maximization of the overall accuracy measure as a criterion for optimization. The results showed that sample size and sample density influenced the description of the spatial distribution of soybean yield. When the sample size was increased, there was an increased efficiency of thematic maps used to describe the spatial variability of soybean yield (higher values of accuracy indices and lower values for the sum of squared estimation error). In addition, more accurate maps were obtained, especially considering the optimized sample configurations with 188 and 549 sample points.
RESUMO Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de estudar e comparar mapas temáticos da produtividade da soja para diferentes grades amostrais, utilizando métodos geoestatísticos (função semivariância e krigagem). A análise foi realizada com dados da produtividade de soja em t ha-1 numa área comercial com grades regulares e distâncias entre pontos de 25x25 m, 50x50 m, 75x75 m e 100x100 m, com 549; 188; 66 e 44 pontos amostrais, respectivamente, e dados obtidos pelo monitor de colheita. Também foram gerados esquemas amostrais otimizados, com o algoritmo chamado Têmpera Simulada, usando a maximização da medida de acurácia exatidão global, como critério de otimização. Foi verificado que fatores como o tamanho da amostra e a densidade amostral influenciaram na descrição da distribuição espacial da produtividade da soja feita por meio dos mapas temáticos. Quando se aumentou o tamanho amostral, houve aumento da eficiência dos mapas temáticos quanto à descrição da variabilidade espacial da produtividade da soja (maiores valores dos índices de acurácia e os menores valores para a soma quadrada do erro de estimação). Além disso, os mapas mais acurados foram obtidos considerando as configurações amostrais otimizadas com 188 e 549 pontos amostrais.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper was to compare thematic maps constructed from data sets related to soybean productivity with different regular sampling grids of 25x25 m, 50 x50 m, 75 x 75 m and 100x100 m, using kriging techniques. In the theoretical models fitted to the experimental semivariances, it was used the maximum likelihood method for parameter estimation. The comparison of thematic maps were made by accuracy indices, obtained from the error matrix. The results showed that factors such as sample size and sample density between points interfere in the choice of the theoretical spatial model, the parameter estimates and the construction of thematic maps.
RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar mapas temáticos construídos a partir de conjuntos de dados referentes à produtividade da soja, com diferentes grades amostrais regulares de 25x25 m; 50x50 m; 75x75 m e 100x100 m, utilizando técnicas de krigagem. No ajuste dos modelos teóricos a semivariâncias experimentais, utilizou-se para a estimação dos parâmetros o método de máxima verossimilhança. A comparação dos mapas temáticos foi realizada por meio dos índices de acurácia, obtidos a partir da matriz de erros. Foi verificado que fatores tais, como o tamanho amostral e a densidade amostral entre pontos, interferem na escolha do modelo teórico espacial, nas estimativas dos parâmetros e na construção dos mapas temáticos.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
The cassava starch industries generate a large volume of wastewater effluent that, stabilized in ponds, wastes its biogas energy and pollutes the atmosphere. To contribute with the reversion of this reality, this manipueira treatment research was developed in one phase anaerobic horizontal pilot reactor with support medium in bamboo pieces. The reactor was excavated into the ground and sealed with geomembrane in HDPE, having a volume equal to 33.6 m³ and continuous feeding by gravity. The stability indicators were pH, volatile acidity/total alkalinity ratio and biogas production. The statistical analyses were performed by a completely randomized design, with answers submitted to multivariate analysis. The organical loads in COD were 0.556; 0.670; 0.678 and 0.770 g L-1 and in volatile solids (VS) of 0.659; 0.608; 0.570 and 0.761 g L-1 for the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 13.0; 11.5; 10.0 and 7.0 days, respectively. The reductions in COD were 88; 80; 88 and 67% and for VS of 76; 77; 65 and 61%. The biogas productions relatively to the consumed COD were 0.368; 0.795; 0.891 and 0.907 Lg-1, for the consumed VS of 0.524; 0.930; 1.757 and 0.952 Lg-1 and volumetric of 0.131; 0.330; 0.430 and 0.374 L L-1 d-1. The reactor remained stable and the bamboo pieces, in visual examination at the end of the experiment, showed to be in good physical conditions.
As fecularias produzem grande volume de manipueira que, estabilizado em lagoas, provoca desperdício da energia do biogás e a poluição da atmosfera. Para contribuir com a reversão dessa realidade, desenvolveu-se esta pesquisa de tratamento de manipueira de fecularia em reator anaeróbio tubular horizontal piloto, com meio suporte, em peças de bambu. O reator foi escavado no solo e impermeabilizado com geomembrana, com volume de 33,6 m³ e alimentação contínua por gravidade. Os indicadores de estabilidade foram pH, relação acidez volátil/alcalinidade total e produção de biogás. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com respostas submetidas à análise multivariada. As cargas orgânicas em termos de demanda química de oxigênio (DQO) foram de 0,556; 0,670; 0,678 e 0,770 g L-1 e em sólidos voláteis (SV) de 0,659; 0,608; 0,570 e 0,761 g L-1 para os tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH) de 13,0; 11,5; 10,0 e 7,0 dias, respectivamente. As reduções médias de DQO foram de 88; 80; 88 e 67% e de SV de 76; 77; 65 e 61%, respectivamente. As produções de biogás por DQO consumida foram de 0,368; 0,795; 0,891 e 0,907 L g-1, por SV consumidos de 0,524; 0,930; 1,757 e 0,952 L g-1 e volumétrica de 0,131; 0,330; 0,430 e 0,374 L L-1 d-1. O reator permaneceu estável, e as peças de bambu, em análise visual ao final do experimento, apresentaram-se fisicamente íntegras.