Abstract This study reports the clinical case of a 42-year-old patient with ulcerated lesions who was followed up by general practitioners with the diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis. However, when referred to the Dermatology division a diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome was established based on clinical criteria. Although there are defined clinical criteria for this syndrome, sometimes its diagnosis can be challenging, due to lack of knowledge of the disease and extremely heterogeneous clinical phenotype. The authors highlight the potential difficulties in establishing the diagnosis considering the multiple clinical findings during the investigation process, contributing to the risk of increased morbidity and mortality.
Abstract: Bullous pemphigoid, mucous membrane pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita are subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases whose antigenic target is located at the basement membrane zone. Mucous membrane pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita can evolve with cicatricial mucosal involvement, leading to respiratory, ocular and/or digestive sequelae with important morbidity. For each of these dermatoses, a literature review covering all therapeutic options was performed. A flowchart, based on the experience and joint discussion among the authors of this consensus, was constructed to provide treatment orientation for these diseases in Brazil. In summary, in the localized, low-risk or non-severe forms, drugs that have immunomodulatory action such as dapsone, doxycycline among others may be a therapeutic option. Topical treatment with corticosteroids or immunomodulators may also be used. Systemic corticosteroid therapy continues to be the treatment of choice for severe forms, especially those involving ocular, laryngeal-pharyngeal and/or esophageal mucosal involvement, as may occur in mucous membrane pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Several immunosuppressants are used as adjuvant alternatives. In severe and recalcitrant cases, intravenous immunoglobulin is an alternative that, while expensive, may be used. Immunobiological drugs such as rituximab are promising drugs in this area. Omalizumab has been used in bullous pemphigoid.
Abstract: Granuloma annulare is a relatively common, idiopathic, benign inflammatory dermatosis, with a varied clinical presentation that often makes diagnosis difficult. It mainly affects the extremities, such as the dorsa of the hands and feet, forearms and legs. Palmar and plantar regions are generally spared. It occurs mainly in young female patients. The presentation of the palmar variant in an elderly patient is a rarity.
Abstract: Morbihan disease is a rare condition characterized by chronic and persistent erythematous solid edema localized on the face. It is believed to be a complication of rosacea and may occur at any stage of the disease. Features of this condition include variable therapeutic response and great refractoriness. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with rosacea history diagnosed with Morbihan disease, who showed excellent therapeutic response with the combination of deflazacort and oral isotretinoin but developed recurrence after corticosteroid discontinuation. We believe that in severe cases of lymphedema of the face this combination is effective and corticosteroid suspension should be done slowly and gradually.
Abstract Pemphigus foliaceus is a chronic autoimmune disease of the skin, clinically characterized by scaly and crusty cutaneous erosions involving the seborrheic areas. The patient can eventually become erythrodermic. There are reports of atypical cases of pemphigus foliaceus with pustules and neutrophils, and clinical differentiation from generalized pustular psoriasis of von Zumbusch is difficult. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a history of psoriasis vulgaris that has developed pemphigus foliaceus with pustules, triggered by withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids. This is the first report associating this atypical form of pemphigus with psoriasis, suggesting that an overlap with generalized pustular psoriasis can occur.
Abstract Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is a rare disease characterized by acral papular eruption with symmetrical distribution. It is a benign and self-limited disease; the symptoms disappear after two to eight weeks, without recurrences or scars. Skin lesions are usually asymptomatic. Prodrome might occur, suggesting upper respiratory infection, or constitutional symptoms. Diagnosis is eminently clinical, and this disease is associated with viral infections. Due to its rarity and low occurrence in adolescents and adults, we report a case of Gianotti-Crosti syndrome of a teenager.
Abstract Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease described in 2005 as a variant of the classical Sweet's Syndrome (SS). Histopathologically, the dermal inflammatory infiltrate is composed mainly of mononuclear cells that have a histiocytic appearance and represent immature myeloid cells. We describe a case of Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome in an 18-year-old man. Although this patient had clinical manifestations compatible with SS, the cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous annular plaques, which are not typical for this entity and have not been described in histiocytic form so far. The histiocytic subtype was confirmed by histopathological analysis that showed positivity for myeloperoxidase in multiple cells with histiocytic appearance.
Abstract: Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue.
Abstract: Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis.
Abstract: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric vascular neoplasm, with cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement. Different clinical and epidemiological variants have been identified. The classic form is manifested mainly in elderly men with indolent and long-term evolution, with lesions localized primarily in the lower extremities. We present two cases of classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS) in two female patients with extensive, exuberant skin involvement and rapid evolution, with good response to radiotherapy.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune, acquired, cutaneous disease caused by the production of autoantibodies against hemidesmosomes' components in the basement membrane. The estimated incidence in Europe ranges from 7 to 43 cases per million inhabitants per year. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). Our cohort of Bullous pemphigoid and ND is the first in Brazil and showed a significantly high prevalence of neurological and/or psychiatric diseases, especially cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and dementia, in agreement with the prevalence reported in several studies published in the medical literature in recent years.
The antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are increasingly being used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Several adverse effects of these drugs have been reported, including the paradoxical development of sarcoidosis, especially with the use of etanercept. We present the first Brazilian case report of systemic sarcoidosis induced by etanercept and a literature review.
Os medicamentos antagonistas do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) estão sendo cada vez mais utilizados no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias e autoimunes. Efeitos adversos desses medicamentos vem sendo relatados, incluindo o desenvolvimento paradoxal de sarcoidose, principalmente com o uso do etanercepte. Apresentamos o primeiro relato de caso brasileiro de sarcoidose sistêmica induzida por etanercepte e uma revisão da literatura.
Here, we describe an atypical case of systemic sclerosis in its diffuse cutaneous form with acute and rapid progression of the cutaneous condition, without any systemic manifestations and the infrequent formation of bullae, showing the importance of diagnosis and early treatment in such cases. This case also shows that special measures should be taken for bullous cutaneous lesions and ulcerations resulting from serious sclerosis, which are entry points and increase morbidity and risk of death. Other prognostic factors include age, ESR and renal and pulmonary involvement. Capillaroscopies can be useful predictors of greater severity of systemic scleroderma, revealing a greater link with systemic, rather than cutaneous, involvement.
Descrevemos um caso atípico de esclerose sistêmica em sua forma cutânea difusa com instalação aguda e rápida progressão do quadro cutâneo sem qualquer acometimento sistêmico e a infrequente formação de bolhas, demostrando a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoce frente a casos semelhantes e mostrando, com a experiência deste caso, que cuidados especiais devem ser tomados com as lesões cutâneas bolhosas e as ulcerações decorrentes da grave esclerose que são portas de entrada e aumentam a morbidade e risco de morte. Outros fatores prognósticos descritos são idade, VHS e envolvimento pulmonar e renal. A capilaroscopia pode ser preditor de maior gravidade da esclerodermia sistêmica, guardando maior relação com o envolvimento sistêmico do que cutâneo.
Mastocytosis is a rare disease characterized by proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in various organs. The maculopapular cutaneus mastocytosis is divided into three subtypes: papular/plaque variant, urticaria pigmentosa and eruptive macular telangiectasia perstans. Dermoscopic may help to better characterize the different forms of cutaneus mastocytosis. We report a 55 year-old female with urticaria pigmentosa and its dermoscopy.
Mastocitose é uma doença rara caracterizada pela proliferação e acúmulo de mastócitos em vários órgãos. A mastocitose cutanea maculopapular divide-se em três subtipos: variante máculo-papular, urticária pigmentosa e telangiectasia macular eruptiva perstans. A dermatoscopia pode ajudar a caracterizar melhor as diferentes formas de mastocitose cutânea. Relatamos um caso de paciente feminina de 55 anos com urticária pigmentosa e sua dermatoscopia.