Abstract Background: The ideal therapeutic option for ventilator associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is not defined. The aim of this study was to assess mortality-associated risk factors in patients with VAP by CRE and determine the outcome of several treatment options. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in two tertiary hospitals involving patients with VAP caused by CRE between January 2010 and August 2014. The outcomes were mortality within 30 days of VAP diagnosis and overall mortality during hospital admission. Risk factors for mortality were assessed by comparing variables of survivors and non-survivors. Results: One hundred and twelve patients with CRE-VAP were included, 73 (65%) male, median age 56 years. The 30-day mortality was 57.1% and the overall hospital mortality was 67%. In the binary logistic regression analysis, only age >50 years was independently associated to increased mortality. Polymyxin was the most used drug (47.5%), followed by tigecycline (29.2%) and aminoglycosides (2.4%). Combined therapy with two active drugs was used by 17 patients (20.8%). No therapeutic option was independently associated to survival. However, combined therapy with two active drugs was superior to the therapy with a single active drug when inappropriate therapy was the comparator (p = 0.044). The addition of carbapenem was not associated with increased survival. Conclusion: The best therapeutic option for VAP by CRE is still not completely defined, but the therapy with at least two active drugs was superior in this study.
Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (VAHS) is a severe hematological disorder related to some viral infections. It is an illness characterized by persistent fever, pancytopenia, splenomegaly, hyperferritinemia and, the most important, hemophagocytosis observed in the bone marrow, liver and/or lymph nodes. VAHS associated with hepatitis A virus infection is rarely described, despite the high incidence of this viral infection in the population in general. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the optimal treatment of VAHS. In this article the clinical features, presumed pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and treatment of VAHS are discussed, including description of cases of VAHS related to hepatitis A virus infection found in the medical literature.
A síndrome hemofagocitária associada a vírus é uma doença hematológica grave relacionada com algumas síndromes virais. É doença caracterizada por febre persistente, pancitopenia, esplenomegalia, hiperferritinemia e hemofagocitose na medula óssea, fígado e/ou linfonodos. A síndrome hemofagocitária associada ao vírus da hepatite A é raramente descrita, apesar da alta incidência desta infecção viral na população como um todo. Não existem consensos na literatura a respeito do tratamento desta morbidade. Neste artigo, os aspectos clínicos, patogênese, critérios diagnósticos e tratamento da síndrome hemofagocitária associada a vírus, incluindo a descrição de casos publicados da síndrome associada ao vírus da hepatite A.