ABSTRACT Hexapods, commonly known as insects, are a neglected taxonomic group in the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, with unanswered questions about their species richness and the ecological processes in which they are involved (e.g., colonization, introduction, establishment, and extinction). Herein, we provide an updated Hexapod checklist with current nomenclatural combinations. The entomofauna of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago is currently composed of 453 species in 21 orders. The orders, and their respective number of species, are: Blattaria (9), Coleoptera (118), Collembola (29), Dermaptera (3), Diplura (1), Diptera (134), Embioptera (1), Hemiptera (29), Hymenoptera (59), Isoptera (2), Lepidoptera (25), Mantodea (1), Neuroptera (3), Odonata (5), Orthoptera (11), Phasmatodea (1), Phthiraptera (6), Psocoptera (3), Siphonaptera (1), Thysanoptera (10), and Zygentoma (2). The archipelago has 263 new taxon records (family + genera + species). Thirty-eight species (3.39%) were described from local specimens and most of them are likely endemic species. This study more than doubles our knowledge (from the previous 190 records) of the entomofauna in this large Brazilian archipelago. This study also provides a baseline for studies on its conservation status and for implementing future environmental management programs.
ABSTRACT Mycodrosophila is a cosmopolitan genus of Drosophilidae that comprises approximately 130 species with mycophagous habitats. In this study, we described a new species of Mycodrosophila based on morphological traits and included details of the male terminalia. The holotype is from Eugênio Lefévre, locality in Campos do Jordão municipality, SP, Brazil, located in the Atlantic rainforest biome and was sampled in the 1930s.
Abstract The composition and potential hosts of mycophagous Drosophilidae from a section of the Brazilian Amazon forest in the Caxiuanã National forest were investigated. Sampling was performed in three different periods at long the wet season (January (beginning) and July (end) 2013 and May (middle) 2014). The samples were collected from existing trails by actively searching for fungal fruiting bodies where Drosophilidae were present. We present composition and richness analysis over two years of sampling sampling Drosophilidae and Fungi. We evaluate sampling completeness using asymptotic species richness estimators. Out of 159 fruiting body samples and 64 fungal species, 5,124 drosophilids belonging to 55 species and 5 genera were collected. The mycophagous Drosophilidae richness values estimated by Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap were 69 and 61, respectively. The estimated fly richness correlated positively with fungal richness and abundance. Among the Drosophilidae species identified in this study, approximately 5% represent new occurrences for Brazil and 56% represent new species. Four genera belonging to the Zygothrica genus group are found in the Amazon region, and these genera represent 80% of the fungus-associated fauna known to date for the tropics. In conclusion, our results show that the fungal richness and abundance were the factors that determined the high diversity of mycophagous Drosophilidae.
Abstract Although members of Drosophilidae are frequently the topic of ecological studies in Brazil, few have explored Restinga or, until only recently, Pampa biome environments. This study proposes to describe the diversity and temporal variation of the Drosophilidae assemblage from a Restinga forest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We performed monthly collections from February 2013 to January 2014 using yeasted banana-baited traps. A total of 25,093 individuals of 46 species were sampled. Drosophila simulans and the D. willistoni subgroup were the dominant taxa; D. polymorpha, D. immigrans, D. paraguayensis and Zygothrica orbitalis were of intermediate abundance, and the other 40 species were rare. Based on sampling effort estimators, our collections were sufficient. Jaccard and Morisita indices evaluated using ANOSIM reveal little similarity in the composition of samples across months. Canonical correspondence analysis shows that the variables of maximum and minimum temperature are the main factors responsible for differentiation of the species composition of the assemblage throughout the year, whereby collections in the coldest periods (July, August and September) are those with a more differentiated composition. In these months, the dominance of D. simulans and the D. willistoni subgroup decreases while increased abundance of the D. tripunctata group (as D. paraguayensis) and Z. orbitalis occurs. In comparison to other studies carried out in environments in southernmost Brazil, we observed a similar pattern of fluctuation in abundance over the year, with a higher abundance of dominant species in warmer months and population sizes decreasing in colder months.
ABSTRACT There are approximately 130 species of MycodrosophilaOldenberg, 1914 worldwide, although only nine species were recorded in American countries so far, three of which are exclusively Nearctic, five exclusively Neotropical and one found in both biogeographic regions (Mycodrosophila projectans). Such a small number of American species is likely a consequence of collecting bias, which favors the capture of frugivorous drosophilids, and to the general absence of Neotropical Mycodrosophila studies in the last 50 years. Here, we describe two commonly sampled species of Mycodrosophila from the Amazonian and Pampa Brazilian biomes, which share morphological similarities with Mycodrosophila neoprojectans and M. projectans, respectively. We compared sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), external morphology characteristics and male terminalia among these species. Based on a DNA barcoding approach coupled to morphological differences, we proposed the delimitation of two new species, Mycodrosophila hofmanni sp. nov. and Mycodrosophila valentae sp. nov. An updated key to identifying Neotropical and Nearctic Mycodrosophila species is also provided.
The present paper brings together survey data from nine collection sites in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Samples were obtained during about four years in forested, coastal and urban areas. Flies were attracted by fermented banana baits and captured in traps. Among the species of the genus Zygothrica Wiedemann 1830 collected, Zygothrica apopoeyi Burla 1956, Z. bilineata (Williston 1896), Z. dispar (Wiedemann 1830), Z./ lanceolata Burla 1956, Z. nigropleura Grimaldi 1987, and Z. poeyi (Sturtevant 1921) were recorded for the first time in Santa Catarina state and, except for Z. bilineata, also in southern Brazil. Apart from these species, we also collected Zygothrica hypandriata Burla 1956, Z. orbitalis (Sturtevant 1916) (as Z. parilis), Z. prodispar Duda 1925 and Z. vittimaculosa Burla 1956. Except for Z. bilineata and Z. hypandriata, these are the new southernmost records for the geographical distribution of these species. All the collected species were represented by few individuals, probably as a consequence of the collection method, and most of them was captured in winters and springs. Five species were restricted to the more preserved studied site, and most individuals were collected in forest sites. Nevertheless, four species were also captured in urban or xeric environments, indicating a higher tolerance and a wider ecological versatility in this genus as compared to what was previously thought, at least for some species.
O presente estudo reúne dados de pesquisa de nove locais de coleta no estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Foram obtidas amostras durante aproximadamente quatro anos em áreas florestais, litorâneas e urbanas. As moscas foram atraídas através de isca de banana fermentada e capturadas em armadilhas. Dentre as espécies do gênero Zygothrica Wiedemann 1830 coletadas, Zygothrica apopoeyi Burla 1956, Z. bilineata (Williston 1896), Z. dispar (Wiedemann 1830), Z. lanceolata Burla 1956, Z. nigropleura Grimaldi 1987, e Z./poeyi (Sturtevant 1921) foram registradas pela primeira vez no estado de Santa Catarina e, com exceção de Z. bilineata, também no sul do Brasil. Além destas espécies, também foram coletadas Zygothrica hypandriata Burla 1956, Z. orbitalis (Sturtevant 1916) (como Z. parilis), Z. prodispar Duda 1925 e Z. vittimaculosa Burla 1956. Com exceção de Z. bilineata e Z. hypandriata, estes registros representam os novos limites de distribuição geográfica sul para estas espécies. Todas as espécies coletadas foram representadas por poucos indivíduos, provavelmente como conseqüência do método de coleta, e a maioria delas foi capturada em invernos e primaveras. Cinco/espécies foram restritas ao local estudado mais preservado e a maioria dos indivíduos foi coletada em áreas de floresta. Entretanto, quatro espécies também foram capturadas em ambientes urbanos ou xéricos, indicando uma tolerância mais alta e uma versatilidade ecológica mais ampla do que previamente era pensado para este gênero, pelo menos para algumas de suas espécies.