This paper presents the results of a study whose objective was to understand how location within industrial concentrations, like clusters or industrial districts, affects the financial performance of firms. In its theoretical framework, this paper attempts to introduce the reasons behind the alleged superior performance of firms located in these concentrations, the base of the hypothesis formulated in this study. Analysis from a three-level hierarchical linear model applied to a sample of 509 companies located in the state of São Paulo found no evidence that industrial concentrations provide firms with superior performance, contradicting expectations generated by the theory. The decomposition of the variance of performance indicated that the location of the firms and the form with which a city interacts with an industry exerts significant influence on how they will perform. In short, location matters to the future of firms. This finding underlines the need to understand how characteristics of cities or regions can promote or retard the performance of firms.
This paper analyses country effects on firm performance. Empirical analysis was based on a sample of 83,641 observations and 10,927 firms in 37 countries and 224 industries, in a 10 year time span. A cross-classified 3-level hierarchical linear model allowed the estimation of country, industry and country-industry interaction effects, which had approximately the same relative importance. Altogether, these effects were nearly as important as firm effect. The influence of each specific country on the performance of its firms was also studied and a ranking of countries based on fi rm profitability was developed.
Este trabalho analisou a influência do país sobre o desempenho das firmas. A análise empírica tomou por base uma amostra de 83.641 observações de 10.927 firmas em 37 países e 224 indústrias, em um período de 10 anos. Um modelo linear hierárquico de três níveis com classificação cruzada permitiu identificar que a importância relativa dos efeitos país, indústria e interação indústria-país é semelhante e, em conjunto, aproximadamente da mesma magnitude do efeito firma. Além de estimar a importância do efeito país, o trabalho analisou a infl uência individual de cada país sobre o desempenho das fi rmas, o que permitiu a elaboração de um ranking de países com base na lucratividade das fi rmas.