ABSTRACT Ciguatera poisoning is the most common form of non-bacterial food-poisoning from fish worldwide. The incidence among Brazilians returning from high-risk regions is unclear because it is not a mandatory reportable disease. We describe a previously healthy 53-year-old Brazilian woman developed Ciguatera fish poisoning while traveling to Havana, Cuba. Physicians and health care professionals should advise travelers to avoid eating ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species in the Caribbean islands. Despite the prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, early recognition of the identifying clinical features of ciguatera can result in improved patient care.
ABSTRACT Background: There is little information on herpes zoster from hospital registries in South America. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of herpes zoster (HZ) in hospitalized patients.' Methods: We searched for hospital-based records during the period from March 2000 to January 2017 in a 700-bed tertiary-care hospital located in southern Brazil. The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed, and data regarding demographics, medical history, clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment regimens, and clinical outcomes were collected. Patients were also evaluated for mortality. Results: There were 801 records of herpes zoster according to the proposed criteria. Most patients with HZ presented a cutaneous clinical form of the disease with involvement of a single dermatome (n = 589, 73.5%). Additional clinical characteristics included postherpetic neuralgia (22.1%), ophthalmic HZ (7.6%) and meningoencephalitis (2.7%). Most patients presented immunocompromised conditions (64.9%) including HIV, administration of immunosuppressive agents, and malignant neoplasms. During this period, there were 105 (13.1%) deaths, which were mostly unrelated to HZ. Five deaths were related to HZ meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a high burden of HZ disease in a Brazilian tertiary care hospital in the HZ vaccination era. Awareness of the incidence and comorbidity factors associated with HZ in Latin American countries such as Brazil contribute for adoption and implementation of strategies for immunization in this area.
ABSTRACT There are limited data on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Brazil. Here, we report on the identification of the molecular pattern of the Cryptococcus species that caused meningitis in patients admitted in a Brazilian reference tertiary care hospital, and review the published studies addressing the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus in Brazil. Our study has shown the predominance of molecular type VNII in HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Molecular types VNII and VGII were occasionally detected in HIV-infected and non-infected patients with meningoencephalitis. In contrast, previous studies have shown that several regions exhibited a high prevalence of the VNI molecular type and sporadic cases of the VNII and VGII molecular types in patients with cryptococcosis in Brazil. Additional studies including VNII isolates will contribute to understanding the epidemiology and phylogenetic relationship of these genotype compared to the other ones. So far, no clear correlation has been established between genotypes, antifungal susceptibility for Cryptococcus and clinical outcome in cryptococcosis.
OBJECTIVES: Drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes much higher rates of treatment toxicity, failure or relapse, and mortality. We determined the drug resistant profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from a population of HIV-infected patients in southern Brazil and studied the potential factors associated with resistance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from HIV-infected patients and factors that could be associated with resistance from 2000 to 2005. RESULTS: 236 patients were included in the study. Resistance to at least one drug was observed in 32 (14.6%) isolates, and multi-drug resistance was observed in 4 (1.82%) isolates. On multivariate analysis, previous use of tuberculostatics and quinolones were related to any first-line drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, previous quinolone use was significantly associated to first-line anti-TB drugs resistance. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major problem worldwide, and we believe quinolones should be used with caution in settings where TB is endemic.
Candida species are an uncommon cause of meninigitis. Given the rarity of this infection, the epidemiology, prognosis, and optimal therapy for Candida meningitis are poorly defined. The authors report on a paraplegic patient due to spinal cord injury who developed C. tropicalis meningitis. In addition, we review and discuss other reported cases of C. tropicalis meningitis in the medical literature
Meningitis is a severe and potentially fatal form of tuberculosis. The diagnostic workup involves detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by microscopy or culture, however, the difficulty in detecting the organism poses a challenge to diagnosis. The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnostic approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) meningitis has been reported as a fast and accurate method, with several commercial kits available. As an alternative, some institutions have been developing inexpensive in house assays. In our institution, we use an in house PCR for tuberculosis. We analyzed the performance of our PCR for the diagnosis of MTB meningitis in 148 consecutive patients, using MTB culture as gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of CSF PCR for the diagnosis of MTB meningitis was 50% and 98.6% respectively with a concordance with CSF mycobacterial culture of 96% (Kappa=0.52). In contrast to CSF cultures for MTB, our PCR test is a fast, simple and inexpensive tool to diagnose tuberculous meningitis with a performance similar to that obtained with the available commercial kits.