ABSTRACT Introduction After a failed transplant, management of a non-functional graft with pain or recurrent infections can be challenging. Transplant nephrectomy (TN) can be a morbid procedure with the potential for significant blood loss. Embolization of the renal artery alone has been proposed as a method of reducing complications from an in vivo failed kidney transplant. While this does yield less morbidity, it may not address an infected graft or refractory hematuria or rejection. We elected to begin preoperative embolization to assess if this would help decrease the blood loss and transfusion rate associated with TN. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent non-emergent TN at our institution. Patients who had functioning grafts that later failed were included in analysis. TN was performed for recurrent infections, pain or hematuria. We evaluated for blood loss (EBL) during TN, transfusion rate and length of hospital stay. Results A total of 16 patients were identified. Nine had preoperative embolization or no blood flow to the graft prior to TN. The remaining 7 did not have preoperative embolization. The shortest time from transplant to TN was 8 months and the longest 18 years with an average of 6.3 years. Average EBL for the embolized patients (ETN) was 143.9cc compared to 621.4cc in the non-embolized (NETN) group (p=0.041). Average number of units of blood transfused was 0.44 in the ETN with only 3/9 patients requiring transfusion. The NETN patients had average of 1.29 units transfused with 5/7 requiring transfusion. The length of stay was longer for the ETN (5.4 days) compared to 3.9 in the NETN. No intraoperative complications were seen in either group and only one patient had a postoperative ileus in the NETN. Conclusion Embolization prior to TN significantly decreases the EBL but does not significantly decrease transfusion rate. However, patients do require a significantly longer hospitalization with embolization due to the time needed for embolization. Larger studies are needed to determine if embolization before transplant nephrectomy reduces the transfusion rates and overall complications.
We evaluated samples of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells from 46 AIDS patients, before starting therapy with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI), and after 6 months of drug use. PBMC were stored and tested by a Line Probe Assay (LiPA), in order to assess the frequency of RT mutations in this population. Six patients were taking AZT before initial blood collection (1 to 16 weeks of drug use) and 40 patients had no prior therapy. After baseline evaluation, 19 patients received AZT, 23 AZT plus DDI, 3 started AZT only with DDI added after 3 months, and 3 received a combination of AZT plus 3TC. Detection of at least one mutation was found in 33% (15/46) of patients at baseline, and 83% (38/46) had at least 1 mutation after 6 months of therapy. In the majority of cases, samples presented with the wild type and variants of HIV, simultaneously. Patients receiving monotherapy had a higher frequency of mutations (L41 and F214, Y215) than did patients receiving double-drug therapy (19 vs. 10). No specific mutation associated with DDI was identified in 26 patients so treated. Despite the finding of a mean increase in CD4 count and a mild decrease in viral load, patients tended to have an inverse correlation between the CD4 variation and number of mutations detected after 6 months, suggesting potential loss of drug efficacy in the presence of these genotypic changes.