ABSTRACT The production of waste has been increasing in direct proportion to the industrialization of the countries. Therefore, the adequate disposal of these wastes is an issue widely discussed among environmental agencies. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the residual effect of successive additions of tannery and coal mining waste on the chemical properties of the soil and the accumulation of chromium in castor bean plants. The treatments applied under field conditions were: T1 - control, that is, soil without fertilization; T2- soil fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) + limestone to reach pH 6.0; T3 - soil mixed with tannery sludge at a dose adequate to reach pH 6.0 + PK; T4 - soil receptor of twice the dose of tannery sludge used in treatment 3 + PK; T5 - soil mixed with coal residue + NPK + limestone in an amount adequate to reach pH 6.0; T6 - soil mixed with coal residue + tannery slurry at a dose adequate to reach pH 6.0 + PK; T7 - soil mixed with chrome sawdust + NPK + limestone in adequate quantity to reach pH 6.0; T8 - soil mixed with mineral Cr + tannery sludge at a dose adequate to reach pH 6.0 + PK. In the field, the soil received the different treatments. Subsequently, samples of this soil were conditioned in pots and the experiment with the plants was conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replicates per treatment. Subsequently, samples of this soil were placed in pots and the experiment with plants was conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replications per treatment. The dry matter yield showed that the application of chrome sawdust (T7) provided the highest growth of the castor bean, as well as the higher levels of P in its tissue. Chromium content in the aerial part of the plants did not reach levels that can be considered as contamination of these plants. The distribution of chromium in the different parts of the castor bean plants demonstrated the possibility of future use of the grains to produce biodiesel.
RESUMO A produção de resíduos tem aumentado em proporção direta com a industrialização dos países. Sendo assim, a disposição adequada desses resíduos é uma questão largamente discutida entre os órgãos ambientais. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito residual de adições sucessivas de resíduos de curtume e da mineração de carvão sobre as propriedades químicas do solo e o acúmulo de cromo (Cr) em mamoneira. Os tratamentos aplicados em condições de campo foram: T1 - controle, ou seja, solo sem adubação; T2 - solo adubado com nitrogênio-fósforo-potássio (NPK) + calcário para atingir pH 6,0; T3 - solo misturado com lodo de curtume em dose adequada para se atingir pH 6,0 + PK; T4 - solo receptor de duas vezes a dose de lodo de curtume utilizada no T3 + PK; T5 - solo misturado com resíduo carbonífero + NPK + calcário em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0; T6 - solo misturado com resíduo carbonífero + lodo de curtume em dose adequada para atingir pH 6,0 + PK; T7 - solo misturado com serragem cromada + NPK + calcário em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0; T8 - solo misturado com Cr mineral + lodo de curtume em dose adequada para se atingir pH 6,0 + PK. Em campo, o solo recebeu os diferentes tratamentos. Posteriormente, amostras desse solo foram acondicionadas em vasos e o experimento com as plantas foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições por tratamento. O rendimento de matéria seca mostrou que a aplicação de serragem cromada (T7) proporcionou o maior crescimento da mamoneira, bem como os maiores teores de P no seu tecido. Os teores de Cr na parte aérea das plantas não atingiram níveis que podem ser considerados de contaminação desses vegetais. A distribuição desse elemento nas diferentes partes das plantas de mamoneira demonstrou a possibilidade de utilização futura dos grãos para produção de biodiesel.
ABSTRACT: The parent geological materials and formation factors influence the chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties and composition of the soil. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the chemical and some physical and mineralogical properties of the soil useful for agricultural practice; to determine the natural contents of the semitotal metals in soils of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and to suggest use of the quality reference values (QRVs) in accordance with Resolution 420/2009 of the National Commission for the Environment (Conama). To determine some soil properties useful for agricultural, 254 surface soil samples from areas without known human influence (native grasslands or forests) were analyzed according to the methodology used by the soil testing laboratories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In addition, the semitotal heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) contents of the soil were determined by the Usepa 3050B method and Hg was determined through an adaptation of the Usepa 7471 method. The results were studied in five soil groups from the state of Rio Grande do Sul according to soil parent materials: (1) basalt (volcanic rocks) of the Plateau region, (2) crystalline rocks (granite, schists, etc.) of the Southern Shield, (3) pelitic rocks (siltstones, mudstones, etc.) of the Peripheral Depression, (4) sandstones (sedimentary) of the Central Plains, and (5) sediments (unconsolidated) of the Coastal Plains. The properties for agricultural use of these soils were compared using the criteria adopted by the current fertilizer recommendations for the state. Multivariate analysis was used to study metals contents. Average values of available P contents were low in all soil groups; however, average values were high in several soil groups for available K. Averages of total acidity and cation exchange capacity were higher in Group 1 soils. The average values of extractable Zn, Cu, and S were high in all soils. Averages of Fe oxides were higher in the soils formed over basalt than in the other soils. Average metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) contents were higher in Group 1 soils than in the other soil groups (2 to 5). For Hg, however, average values were similar for all soil groups. The Spearman correlation coefficients were positive and highest among the metals (except for Cd and Hg) and the clay, Fed, and extractable Cu soil properties. Another high positive correlation coefficient was found between semitotal Cu and Zn contents and organic carbon. The QRVs for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, determined according to Conama Resolution 420/2009, followed the same trend as the average metals contents.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate remaining P compared with soil clay content as a P buffer index to classify P extracted by the Mehlich-1 (M1) and Mehlich-3 (M3) methods in soils from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with five P2O5 rates (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1) and two sucessive corn crops, and three replicates, in 20 representative soils of the state. P extracted by M1 and M3 before crop planting was adjusted to P contents in biomass, considering soil buffer capacity. The division of soils into different buffering classes, based on soil clay or remaining P, improved the capacity of estimating soil available P of both methods. However, there was no difference among the correlation coefficients obtained by classifying soils according to the evaluated indexes (remaining P or soil clay) for both M1 and M3 methods. Remaining P is a viable alternative to replace soil clay content to classify soil P extracted with the M1 and M3 methods.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o P remanescente comparado ao teor de argila como índice tampão para classificar o P extraído pelos métodos de Mehlich-1 (M1) e Mehlich-3 (M3), em solos do Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com cinco doses de P2O5 (0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg kg-1), dois cultivos sucessivos de milho, e três repetições, em 20 solos representativos do Estado. O P extraído pelos métodos M1 e M3, antes dos cultivos, foi ajustado aos conteúdos de P na biomassa, tendo-se considerado a capacidade tampão do solo. A divisão dos solos em classes de tamponamento, de acordo com o teor de argila ou com o P remanescente, melhorou a capacidade preditiva do P disponível para ambos os métodos. Todavia, não houve diferença entre os coeficientes de correlação obtidos pela classificação dos solos de acordo com os índices avaliados (P remanescente ou teor de argila), tanto para o método M1 como para o M3. A análise do P-rem é uma alternativa viável para substituir o teor de argila na classificação do P extraído pelos métodos M1 e M3.
ABSTRACT The increase in food consumption and limitations in food production areas requires improved fertilizer efficiency. Slow- or controlled-release fertilizers are an alternative for synchronizing nutrient availability with the plant demands, reducing losses to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polymer-coated KCl compared with conventional KCl. The products were incubated in soil under controlled conditions to evaluate the time required for nutrient release. A greenhouse experiment was performed with corn plants in pots with loamy sand- or clay-textured soil types to evaluate plant nutrition and losses due to leaching. The K application rates were 0, 18, 36, and 54 mg dm-3. The pots were irrigated, and the percolated liquid was collected. The plants were harvested 30 days after sowing to quantify dry matter (DM) and its K content. In the incubation study, the K release from the coated fertilizer was found to be 42 % over 154 days. The data were fit to a linear function from which a period of 315 days was estimated as required for the release of 75 % of the nutrient. Meanwhile, conventional KCl releases 85 % of the K nutrient in the first 48h. In the cultivation of plants in pots, the coating reduced K losses due to leaching in the loamy sand soil; however, only the application rate of 54 mg dm-3 promoted DM production equivalent to conventional KCl. It is possible that the need for K in the early stages of corn development was not met by a coated KCl.
Abstract The objective of this work was to assess the risk of phosphorus losses by runoff through an index based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), in cropland soils of Southern Brazil. Sixty-five highly representative cropland soils from the region were evaluated. Three labile P forms were measured (Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and ammonium oxalate), and four P sorption indexes were tested (phosphorus single sorption point and Fe+Al determined with the three extractors). Water-extractable P (WEP) was used as an index of P susceptibility to losses by surface runoff. The DPS was determined from the ratio between labile P and each sorption index. DPS values obtained from the ratio between Mehlich-1 P and the single P sorption point ranged from 1 to 25%, whereas those from Mehlich-1 P and Fe+Al (ammonium oxalate) ranged from 1 to 55%. All DPS types were highly correlated with WEP. From a practical stand point, the DPS obtained with both P and Fe+Al extracted with Mehlich-1 can be used to estimate the risk of P losses by runoff in soils of Southern Brazil.
Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o risco de perdas de fósforo por escorrimento superficial por meio de um índice baseado no o grau de saturação de P (GSP) no solo, em solos agrícolas do Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 65 solos agrícolas representativos da região. Três formas lábeis de P foram medidas (Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 e oxalato de amônio), e quatro índices de adsorção de P foram testados (adsorção de P em único ponto e Fe+Al obtido com os três extratores). O P extraível em água (PEA) foi utilizado como índice de suscetibilidade do P a perdas por escoamento superficial. O GSP foi obtido a partir do quociente entre a forma lábil de P e cada índice de adsorção. Os valores do GSP obtidos a partir do quociente entre P Mehlich-1 e a adsorção de P em único ponto variaram de 1 a 25%, enquanto os entre P Mehlich-1 e Fe+Al (oxalato de amônio) variaram de 1 a 55%. Todos os tipos de GSP estiveram altamente correlacionados ao PEA. Do ponto de vista de uso prático, o GSP obtido com P e Fe+Al extraídos com Mehlich-1 pode ser usado para estimar o risco de perda de P por escorrimento superficial em solos do Sul do Brasil.
ABSTRACT Mehlich-1 soil extract is currently used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) States, in Brazil, to evaluate soil phosphorus available to plants and Mehlich-1 is sensitive to soil buffering capacity. This limitation is overcome partly by soil separation into buffering classes based on soil clay content. However, soil clay content has some technical and operational limitations, such as the underestimation of soil clay levels in soils under no-till. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remaining phosphorus (P-rem) compared to soil clay content as an index of the buffering capacity in soils of RS. The relationship between P-rem and soil clay content was assessed using 200 soil samples from a wide range of locations across the state. In 20 representative soil types, P-rem, soil clay content, P maximum adsorption capacity, total and pedogenic Fe contents, amount of P2O5 needed to increase soil P in 1 mg kg-1 extracted by Mehlich-1 and -3 methods and P capacity factor were determined. Furthermore, a pot experiment was carried out with plants to determine soil P content extracted by Mehlich-1 and -3 at the maximum technical efficiency (MET) and the maximum absorption efficiency (MEA). Correlation analyses were performed between P-rem and soil clay content and, with the attributes of soils involving the P buffering capacity. The relationship between P-rem and soil clay content was described as a decreasing exponential function; however, the adjustment was not adequate to propose critical levels for P-rem. The P-rem index was superior to soil clay index in practically all relationships with the attributes related to the soil buffering capacity of the soils. In some cases, the indexes were similar; however, P-rem was not lower than the soil clay content in any case. The P-rem is a more reliable index to represent soil buffering capacity than the soil clay content in soils from RS, and P-rem might be used to implement soil classes for Mehlich-1 and Mehlich-3 determinations of soil P.
ABSTRACT Bioavailability of heavy metals at contaminated sites is largely controlled by the physicochemical properties of the environmental media such as dissolved organic matter, hydroxides and clay colloids, pH, soil cation exchange capacity and oxidation-reduction potential. The aim of this study was to investigate soil pH and heavy metal solubility effect by levels of humic and fulvic acids applied in soil samples with different levels of contamination by heavy metals. The soil samples used in this study were collected in a known metal-contaminated site. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were purchased as a commercially available liquid material extracted from Leonardite. The experiment was carried out in a factorial scheme of 4 × (4 + 1), with four contaminated soil samples and four treatments, comprised of two levels of HA, two levels of FA and a control. The HA treatments increased the solubility of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, As and Ba from soils, while FA treatments decreased, thus raising or not their availability and mobility in soil. Humic acid concentration did not influence soil pH and FA decreased soil pH until 0.7 units. The initial heavy metal concentration in soil affects the magnitude of the processes involving humic substances. The lower releases of heavy metals by FA verified the importance of the complexation properties of organic compounds. These results appear to encourage the use of HA for increased plant-availability of heavy metals in remediation projects and the use of FA for decreased plant-availability of heavy metals at contaminated sites with a risk of introducing metals into the food chain.
ABSTRACT Root growth can be limited by physical and chemical conditions of the soil. Compacted and acidic soils, where there is an occurrence of exchangeable Al, constitute barriers to use of the soil by plant roots. The hypothesis of this study was that physical and chemical properties of the inter-row soil of a peach orchard influence the root distribution of different rootstocks. The aim of this study was to describe and register the soil physical and chemical properties and root distribution in the soil profile of the inter-row of seven years old mature peach (Prunus persica) orchard. Samples of soil (classified as an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico [Rhodic Paleudult] with 180 g kg-1 clay, 120 g kg-1 silt, and 700 g kg-1 sand) and roots were collected from orchard inter-rows of ‘Maciel’ peach, grafted onto ‘Okinawa’ and ‘Nemaguard’ rootstock, at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 m from the trunk, and at every 0.10 m, up to a depth of 0.50 m. The soil samples were sieved and the roots washed. A subsample was removed from each sample for chemical analysis. Resistance to penetration (RP) was used as an indicator of soil compaction. A close relationship was found among chemical properties, RP, and root distribution. Root density was affected by the presence of compacted regions (RP >2,000 kPa) and by high Al saturation in the exchange complex in the soil profile. There was a reduction in the frequency of thick roots (Ø >2 mm) in the samples collected in portions of compacted soil and at increasing soil depth. The compacted portion of the inter-row limits lateral distribution of the peach tree root system, while aluminum limits its depth.
Demand for organic products is intensified in many countries each year. Following this trend, Brazil produces increasing volumes of organic grape juice. In this way, a survey of organic grape juices made from grapes produced according to this system was carried out where physicochemical composition, minerals, trace elements, and pesticide residues were determined. Variables related to grape juice composition were performed by physicochemical procedures; minerals and trace elements, by inductively plasma optical emission spectrometry; pesticide residues, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Main results show that the physicochemical composition of organic grape juices was in general in accordance to the Brazilian legislation. The mean concentrations of trace elements were very low, varying from 0.002 (Cd) to 0.970 (Ba) mg L–1. Pesticide residues were not detected in any sample analyzed (MRL= 10 µg L–1). These results show that the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region present conditions to produce organic grape juices, despite the adverse climate factors that occurs in some years. Nevertheless, these products should be made with grape varieties, such as the labrusca ones, less susceptibles to the main grapevine pathogens.
Fertilizer recommendations in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (RS and SC) states are based on studies of crops grown under conventional tillage and knowledge accumulated over the years. In this period, the crop system and soil sampling depth were altered and crop yields increased; this can affect the critical values of K, the fertility status and fertilizer quantity required by crops. This study aimed to determine the levels of available K extracted by Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 and ion-exchange resin from no tillage soils under soybean, wheat and corn. For this purpose, the K levels of soil samples from 17 experiments were used as well as grain yield data of soybean, wheat and corn grown under no-tillage in 48 studies carried out in RS. Based on the production functions the calibration curve and fertility status were determined. Results indicated that the plant response to K fertilization followed the order: corn> wheat > soybean. The critical K values extracted with Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 and resin were 89.5, 91; 6 and 83.8 mg kg-1 K in the 0-20 cm layer and 117.2; 116.1 and 102.5 mg kg-1 K in the 0-10 cm layer, respectively, and exceeded those recommended by CFSRS / SC (2004) for soybean, wheat and corn grown under no-tillage.
As recomendações de adubação no Rio Grande do Sul e em Santa Catarina são baseadas nos estudos realizados em culturas cultivadas no sistema convencional de preparo do solo e nos conhecimentos acumulados ao longo dos anos. Nesse período, ocorreram mudanças no sistema de cultivo, na profundidade de amostragem do solo e no aumento de rendimento das culturas. Isso pode alterar os teores críticos de K, as faixas de fertilidade e as quantidades de fertilizante para as culturas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo calibrar os teores de K disponível, extraído pelos métodos Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 e resina de troca iônica, para as culturas de soja, trigo e milho cultivadas no sistema plantio direto. Para isso, utilizaram-se amostras de terra de 17 experimentos e resultados de rendimento de grãos de 48 avaliações das culturas de soja, trigo e milho cultivadas em sistema plantio direto, com doses de K, no Rio Grande do Sul; a partir das funções de produção, determinaram-se a curva de calibração e as faixas de fertilidade. Os resultados indicaram que as respostas das plantas à adubação com K foram maiores, nesta sequência: milho, trigo e soja; os teores críticos de K com a solução de Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 e resina foram de 89,5; 91,6; e 83,8 mg kg-1 de K na camada de 0-20 cm de profundidade e de 117,2; 116,1; e 102,5 mg kg-1 de K na camada de 0-10 cm de profundidade, respectivamente, e são maiores do que os recomendados pela CFSRS/SC (2004) para as culturas soja, trigo e milho cultivadas no sistema plantio direto.
Brazil is one of the leaders in the production and trading of tobacco leaves in the global market, which results in a large amount of residues that would be recycled and used as soil fertilizers in agriculture. This research aimed to study the land disposal potential and agricultural use of tobacco processing residues (TPRs), their mineralization and the nutrient supply to the plants. The study was carried out in an open area using pots with 32dm³ of a sandy soil (Paleudult), provided with water drainage collectors and tilled with three corn plants each. Eighteen treatments were tested with mineral fertilization, poultry manure (PM), earthworm compost (EC) and increasing rates (0, 7.5, 15, 30 e 60t ha-1) of TPR D (dust) and TPR S (stem fibers).Treatments with TPRs (15t ha-1) plus mineral supplementation two by two (NP, NK and PK) were also tested, with four replications each. The experiment started in 01/15/2004 and conducted until 03/16/2004, when corn plants were harvested. The response curves showed that the residues application rates between 15 and 20t ha-1 are most adequate for the studied soil. The results indicated that both TPRs may be important sources of biomass and potash and have potential to be recycled in the soil, supplying part of the macronutrients required for proper plant growth.
O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores e exportadores mundiais de tabaco em folha, resultando em grandes quantidaes de resíduos que poderiam ser utilizados como fertilizantes na agricultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de reciclagem agrícola de dois resíduos de agroindústria fumageira (RAF's), sua mineralização no solo e liberação de nutrientes às plantas. O experimento foi conduzido a céu aberto utilizando como unidades experimentais vasos com capacidade de 32 litros de solo, adaptados com tubo coletor de lixiviado e um argissolo (PVAd), cultivado com três plantas de milho. Foram feitos 18 tratamentos com adubo mineral, cama-de-aviário, composto orgânico e com adição de doses crescentes (0, 7,5, 15, 30 e 60t ha-1) dos resíduos RAF P (pó) e do RAF T (talos), além de tratamentos com resíduos (15t ha-1) e complementação com nutrientes minerais dois a dois (NP, NK e PK), em quatro repetições. O experimento foi iniciado em 15/01/2004, tendo sido a parte aérea das plantas colhida em 16/03/2004. Foram avaliados o rendimento do milho e os atributos de fertilidade do solo após a colheita do milho, bem como o nitrogênio perdido por lixivição. Os resultados indicaram que os RAF's são fontes de biomassa e de potássio e possuem potencial para serem reciclados no solo, permitindo a liberação de parte dos macronutrientes necessários ao desenvolvimento das plantas. As curvas de resposta indicaram que a adição de doses entre 15 e 20t ha-1 dos resíduos são as mais recomendadas agronomicamente no solo estudado.
Tannery and leather industries generate high amounts of residues often containing chromium used as a tanning agent. To evaluate the effects of three applications of tannery sludge (TS), leather shavings (LS) and leather shreds (LS) on sorghum (Sorghum graniferum) and radish (Raphanus sativus), a microplot experiment with tree soil types was conducted during the 1996 to 1999 period. Soils pH and Cr contents in plants' edible parts were determined. The residues did not affect plant growth, when properly limed and fertilized. The TS can neutralize soil acidity and supply N for the plants. Plant Cr contents in the edible parts increased with residues application, being however on the range appropriate for consumption. It was not observed Cr mobility to the soil subsurface layers.
As indústrias couro-calçadistas geram grandes quantidades de resíduos que contém cromo, produto utilizado no curtimento do couro. Para avaliar os efeitos de três aplicações de lodo de curtume (LC), resíduo de rebaixadeira (RR) e aparas de couro (AC) sobre o rendimento do sorgo (Sorghum graniferum) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus), foi conduzido um experimento em colunas de PVC, com três tipos de solo, durante o período de 1996 a 1999. Foram determinados no solo os valores de pH e o teor de cromo, bem como o teor de cromo nas partes comestíveis das plantas. Os resíduos não afetaram o crescimento das plantas, quando foram feitas a calagem e a adubação mineral. O LC pode neutralizar a acidez do solo e suprir nitrogênio para as plantas. O teor de cromo nas partes comestíveis das plantas aumentou com a aplicação sucessiva dos resíduos, estando, entretanto, sem exceder os teores aceitáveis para o consumo. Não foi observada a mobilidade de cromo para as camadas subsuperficiais do solo.
Mercury (Hg) occurs in the environment as a natural and anthropogenic element, and through the years the accumulation of mercury has affected the integrity of ecosystems and human health. This study presents a screening of microorganisms resistant to organic and inorganic mercury, the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of Hg, the estimation of the mercury volatilization by selected microorganisms and the dynamics of volatilization. Eight Gram-negative bacteria resistant to high concentrations of mercury (60 to 210 mg L-1) were selected, and these isolates showed ability to volatilize the metal. The dynamics of the volatilization of the Proteus mirabilis M50C demonstrated that in only 4 h of incubation it was possible to volatilize 72% of the mercury present in the culture. The results showed promising application for bioremediation strategies.
Potassium (K) availability to plants is estimated based on the exchangeable K fraction. Multielement methods increase the analysis efficiency in soil laboratories. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soils may affect the prediction of available K. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the available K for corn and soybean in soils in the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state using Mehlich-1 (M1), Mehlich-3 (M3), ion-exchange resin (resin), ammonium acetate pH 7.0 (AcNH4), and verify whether the CTC affects the estimated availability of soil K to plants. The experiment was carried out in microplots in the field and after 45 days of growth the shoot dry mass was quantified and K determined in the tissue. The K quantities estimated by the distinct methods were correlated, the relationship with K uptake by plants in all soils established and the soils separated in CTC classes. Resin-extracted K was about 50 % lower than that obtained by M1, M3 and AcNH4. There close correlations between the K quantities extracted by the methods. The relationship between the quantities of K uptake by the crops and the amounts extracted by the tested methods, which did not differ from each other regardless of soil CTC class. K availability to plants in soils in RS can be estimated by the methods tested in this study. There was no difference between the evaluation methods of K availability in the CTC classes. Despite the resin method being as effective as other methods in estimating available K, it has the drawback of a lower extraction capacity, which results in lower values for K availability classes and thus may favor analytical errors.
A avaliação da disponibilidade de K para as plantas é feita pela estimativa de seus teores na forma trocável. Métodos multielementares aumentam a eficiência nos laboratórios de análises de solo, porém a capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC) do solo pode alterar a predição do K disponível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o K disponível para o milho e para a soja em solos representativos do Estado do RS, pelos métodos Mehlich-1 (M1), Mehlich-3 (M3), resina de troca iônica (resina) e Acetato de Amônio pH 7,0 (AcNH4), bem como verificar se a CTC influencia a estimativa da disponibilidade de K no solo para as plantas. O experimento foi conduzido em microparcelas a céu aberto e, após 45 dias de cultivo, quantificou-se a matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e determinou-se o o teor de K no tecido. Foram feitas as correlações entre os teores de K extraídos pelos métodos e a relação com a absorção de K pelas plantas em todos os solos e separando os solos em classes de CTC. As quantidades de K extraídas pela resina foram aproximadamente 50 % menores que as das soluções de M1, M3 e AcNH4. Os coeficientes de correlação entre os teores de K extraído pelos métodos tiveram alto grau de associação. A relação entre os teores de K acumuladas pelas culturas e os teores extraídos pelos métodos não diferiram, independentemente da separação por classes de CTC. A disponibilidade de K para as plantas em solos do RS pode ser feita pelos métodos testados no presente trabalho. Não houve diferença entre os métodos na avaliação da disponibilidade de K nas classes de CTC. O método da resina, embora não diferindo dos demais na predição do teor de K disponível, apresenta desvantagem em relação aos demais pela menor capacidade extrativa, o que resulta em classes de disponibilidade menores e propicia o erro analítico.
Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) amounts extracted with 0.1molar L-1 HCl (HCl) for the most representative soil types of Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil) were compared with those extracted with Mehlich-1 (M3) and Mehlich-3 (M3) solutions. The nutrients' amounts extracted by different methods indicated high correlation degree. The M3 solution extracted similar copper amounts than HCl; however, lower amounts of Zn. The M1 and M3 solutions are efficient for simultaneous multielement extraction and can be used in soil testing laboratories for RS and SC states.
As quantidades extraídas de cobre (Cu) e de zinco (Zn) pelas soluções de HCl 0,1mol L-1 (HCl) foram comparadas com as extraídas pelas soluções de Mehlich-1 (M1) e de Mehlich-3 (M3). Foram utilizadas 130 amostras de solo representando as principais áreas agrícolas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, as quais foram extraídas do banco de solos do Laboratório de Análises de Solo da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. A correlação entre as quantidades extraídas pelos métodos indicou alto grau de associação e de significância. A quantidade de Cu extraída pela solução de M3, em média, não diferiu do HCl. A quantidade extraída de Zn pela solução de M3, entretanto, foi inferior à extraída por HCl. As quantidades extraídas de Cu e Zn pelas soluções de HCl e de M1 não diferiram estatisticamente. As soluções de M1 e de M3 são eficientes para a extração multielementar simultânea de Cu e Zn dos solos e são alternativas viáveis para serem utilizadas em laboratórios de análises de solo dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina.