Recycling and sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Brazil generates the greatest amount of e-waste among Latin American countries. Nevertheless complete recycling, including end processing of e-waste, does not occur in Brazil. This paper discusses the physical and chemical technologies currently used worldwide and in Brazil for printed circuit board recycling, with emphasis on metal recovery and plastic processing. The goal is to put in evidence the important role that chemistry can play in developing cheaper processes to recycle e-waste.
Beginning students in chemistry usually do not realize that wastes generated in their experimental classes constitute an environmental problem and that residues must be treated or disposed of in a suitable way. In this manuscript we describe the work that we have been doing in the inorganic chemistry course of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul with the objective of creating a critical consciousness in the students about the chemical wastes they generate. With this policy, students are required to take into account the nature of the residues they generate, how they can treat or segregate them, and how they can keep them in a suitable way for final destination, instead of simply throwing them away.
The effect of metal complexation on the antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones was investigated. Nickel-, chromium-, iron-, copper-, and cobalt-containing metal chelates of 5-amino-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone (2) and its acyl-derivatives (3-8) were synthesized and characterized, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Data from infrared spectroscopy indicate that naphthoquinones coordinate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms for 2, and through oxygen atoms when ligands were acyl derivatives 3-8. Susceptibility tests for antimicrobial activity showed that 2 and its acyl derivatives were effective on inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus, but not Gram-negative bacteria. The metal complexation often caused decrease of biological activity. Nickel complex of 2 was the most effective against Gram-positive bacteria, showing MIC values ranging from 375 to 1400 mg/ml. Metal chelates may be useful tools for the understanding of the antimicrobial mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones on these bacteria.
O efeito da complexação com metais sobre a atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas foi investigado. Complexos contendo níquel, cromo, ferro, cobre e cobalto da 5-amino-8-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona (2) e seus acil-derivados (3-8) foram sintetizados e caracterizados e sua atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada. Dados de espectroscopia de infravermelho indicaram que as naftoquinonas coordenam os metais através dos átomos de oxigênio e nitrogênio para 2 e através de átomos de oxigênio, quando os ligantes são os acil-derivados 3-8. Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana demonstraram que 2 e seus derivados foram efetivos na inibição do crescimento de bactérias patogênicas como Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis e Bacillus cereus, mas não apresentaram efeito contra bactérias Gram-negativas. A complexação de metais geralmente causou diminuição da atividade biológica. O complexo de níquel de 2 foi o mais eficaz contra bactérias Gram-positivas, apresentando valores de MIC de, 375 a 1400 µg/mL. Os complexos metálicos podem ser ferramentas úteis para o estudo do mecanismo antimicrobiano de 1,4-naftoquinonas nestas bactérias.