ABSTRACT This study evaluated the performance, egg quality, relative weight of the gastrointestinal organs, and the intestinal morphometry of laying quails fed diets containing levels of dried cassava residue (DCR). A total of 120 150-day-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; and 10.0% of DCR), four replicates, and six birds per experimental unit. The dietary inclusion of DCR did not affect (p>0.05) performance, internal egg quality, yolk color, and the values of villus height, crypt depth, and villus height/crypt depth ratio for the segments of the small intestine. However, a linear increase (p<0.05) was found for eggshell thickness, relative weight of the gizzard, and small intestine with increased dietary levels of the residue. For the relative weight of the pancreas, a quadratic effect (p<0.05) was observed, with the lower relative weight estimated at 4.04% DCR inclusion. Comparing to the control group (0% of DRC inclusion) the quails fed 5% of DRC showed a lower relative weight of the pancreas. The inclusion of up to 10% of dried cassava residue in laying quail’s diets does not interfere with the performance. Among the organs of gastrointestinal tract, the inclusion of dried cassava residue increased the relative weight of gizzard and small intestine. In addition, it improves eggshell quality by increasing eggshell thickness.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate visual contamination rates of carcasses of broilers slaughtered in establishments supervised by the Federal Inspection Service (SIF) and efficiency of carcass washing in replacement of trimming. The work was divided into three parts: analysis of partial and total carcass condemnation by contamination in hot (October to March) and cold (April to September) periods; evaluation of microbiological contamination before and after washing 800 carcasses (400 that did not go through washing x 400 that went through washing); and carcass washing test. For the test, twenty carcasses were evaluated in five treatments: carcasses without contamination - before washing; carcasses without contamination - after washing; contaminated carcasses - before washing and before trimming; contaminated carcasses - after washing; contaminated carcasses - after trimming. Hot and cold periods obtained a similar number and weight of slaughtered chickens. There were no differences regarding condemnation by contamination. Periods of the year did not influence the average weight of the birds slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Carcass washing in the slaughter line was effective in reducing total bacterial contamination, E. coli, and enterobacteria. There is a similarity in the reduction of condemnations by contamination, evidencing that the uniformity of production systems. Although it is not yet a reality in Brazilian slaughterhouses, the washing procedure can be considered a safe replacement for trimming.
ABSTRACT After physiological maturity, the seed is physiologically independent of the plant, and responds to climatic variations that can decrease its vigor, which is dependent on the cultivar. The objective of this work was to evaluate the vigor of soybean cultivars and identify the biochemical components that have the greatest contribution to the maintenance of the physiological quality of the seeds after physiological maturity. The experiment was conducted in Fraiburgo, SC, Brazil, during the 2015/2016 crop season, using four soybean cultivars NA 5909 RG, BMX Ativa RR, BMX VanguardaIPRO, and NS 5959 IPRO. The seed physiological quality and the biochemical composition were evaluated at the phenological stages R7, R7+5 days, R7+10 days (R8), and R7+20 days. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (F test) and the means were compared by the Tukey's test (p<0.01). The seed biochemical composition and physiological quality were correlated using multivariate statistics. The germination of the seeds decreased 6% after physiological maturity up to R7+20 days. This decrease in vigor was dependent on the cultivar; NA 5909 RG decreased 3%, and BMX Ativa RR and NS 5959 IPRO decreased 7%. The biochemical components soluble protein, phytate, soluble sugar, and lipids decreased as a function of the harvest times, indicating the beginning of the process of seed quality loss. The maintenance of seed vigor after physiological maturity was dependent on the cultivar. The soluble protein content can be used as an indicator of the maintenance of physiological quality of soybean seeds after R7.
RESUMO Após a maturidade fisiológica a semente desliga-se fisiologicamente da planta, respondendo a variações climáticas que podem proporcionar decréscimo no seu vigor de forma dependente da cultivar. Desta forma, objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento de cultivares de soja quanto a variações no vigor e identificar quais os componentes bioquímicos que apresentam maior contribuição para a manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes após a maturidade fisiológica. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Fraiburgo, SC, Brasil, na safra 2015/16 utilizando quatro cultivares de soja, NA 5909 RG, BMX Ativa RR, BMX Vanguarda IPRO, NS 5959 IPR. Foram avaliadas a qualidade fisiológica e a composição bioquímica nas épocas de colheita, R7, seguindo de R7 + 5 dias, R7 + 10 dias (R8), R7 + 20 dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (teste F) e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,01). Para correlacionar a composição bioquímica e a qualidade fisiológica utilizou-se estatística multivariada. Verificou-se redução de 6% na germinação da maturidade fisiológica até R7 + 20 dias. Para o vigor, essa redução foi dependente da cultivar, enquanto a NA 5909 RG reduziu 3%, as BMX Ativa RR e NS 5959 IPRO tiveram redução de 7%. Os componentes bioquímicos, proteína solúvel, fitato, açúcar solúvel e lipídios reduziram em função das épocas de colheita, indicando o início do processo de perda de qualidade das sementes. A manutenção do vigor das sementes após a maturidade fisiológica foi dependente da cultivar. O teor de proteína solúvel pode ser utilizado como indicativo de manutenção da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja após R7.
ABSTRAT Arthritis implies inflammation of the intra-articular structures and is one of the causes of condemnation in broilers. The disease is associated with infectious agents such as Staphylococcus aureus, which may pose a potential public health risk. This work was conducted with the objective to determine the occurrence of arthritis in broiler chickens, predominantly of bacterial staphylococcal origin and if there is a difference between the degrees of injury regarding the presence of the bacterium and the histological lesion. Sixty samples of chickens diagnosed with arthritis by Federal Inspection Service from commercial slaughterhouse were collected according to their severity (of mild and severe degree) and submitted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis. There was bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus in 3.3% of the samples classified as mild degree in 10% of the samples classified as severe grade of lesion (p=0,29). For histopathological evaluation, 16.67% and 70% of the samples presented inflammatory infiltrate in mild and severe degrees, respectively (p=0,0001). Mild degree arthritis is related to non-infectious lesions in their higher prevalence while severe-grade arthritis has infectious causes. The condemnation criteria were efficient since S. aureus could be present regardless of the degree of the lesion diagnosed in arthritis.
ABSTRACT Trade liberalization during the last decades has increased among nations as a result of decreased tariffs. However, during the same period, market agents have created new protection measures to replace such mechanisms in an attempt to promote the domestic economic stability of countries, while expanding and ensuring the trade between nations. Considering that Brazil is the second largest broiler producer and chicken-meat exporter worldwide, the present study proposed to analyze the main barriers imposed on Brazilian chicken meat imports by the ten major importing countries. This is a documentary research with primary and secondary data, of a descriptive-exploratory nature, under a qualitative approach. Semi-structured questionnaires including open- and close-ended questions were sent using Survey Monkey software to the Brazilian Association of Animal Protein. The study revealed that technical requirements are those most often imposed by the importing countries, indicating their concern about the safety, quality, and origin of the imported good. Commercial requirements do not constitute a problem for the growth of Brazilian chicken meat exports; however, the requirements made by some countries preclude the exports.
ABSTRACT Intensive broiler production requires large flock density, which compromises litter quality and increases the prevalence of footpad lesions. The present study aimed at comparing the incidence of footpad dermatitis of broilers reared in two different rearing environments. Data from two broiler houses were recorded during 42 d. Air temperature and relative humidity; litter moisture, pH, and temperature; footpad surface temperature; and the incidence of footpad lesions was investigated. Litter quality was analyzed in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two house types (dark house or open-sided house) and four rearing phases (21, 28, 35, and 42 d of growth), with four replicates per treatment using 12 replicates. Four replicates were used for analyzing the air environment data. For the footpad lesion identification, a randomly factorial scheme of recording the surface temperature was built (2 x 2) using two houses, and the broiler sex using 15 replicates in the grow-out stages. The measures of association (odds ratio and risk ratio) were calculated. The multi-criteria analysis (Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP) was applied for estimating the house that provided less prevalence of lesions. The field data did not provide enough evidence for selection of a particular house with less incidence of footpad dermatitis. However, when applying the measures of association data, and corresponding literature data to the AHP, there was an indication that the dark-house provided broiler rearing condition that reduced the incidence of footpad lesions.
ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating beak-trimming methods and intensities on the performance, beak length and uniformity, and egg parameters of commercial layers. During the rearing period, birds were distributed in randomized blocks, with a 2x3 factorial design + two treatments, consisting of beak trimming with infrared (IR) radiation (moderate or severe); three IR intensities (low: 42 nm, intermediate: 46 nm, or high: 52 nm); and two control hot blade (HB) beak trimming treatments (moderate or severe) with eight treatments and five replicates of 21 chicks each, totaling 840 birds. During the growing phase (second experiment) the factorial design was modified to 2 x 3 x 2 + 4, comprising two IR beak-trimming intensities (moderate or severe); three IR radiation intensities (low, moderate and high), second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not, and four additional HB beak-trimming treatments (moderate or severe) beak-trimming intensities, and second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not. There were 16 treatments with six replicates of seven birds each, totaling 672 laying hens, out of which 576 were selected for evaluation during the production period, with the same number of treatments and replicates of the previous phase. Weight gain (g), body weight (g), body weight uniformity (%), beak length (mm) and uniformity (%), absence of cannibalism (%), livability (%), egg production (%), feed intake (g), feed conversion per eggmass, eggmass, specific gravity, eggshell strength, Haugh unit, % yolk were evaluated. Beak trimming by infra-red radiation may be employed in commercial laying hens.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of technical cashew nutshell liquid (TCNSL) in European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) diets from 1 to 35 days of age on the performance, carcass traits, and development of the digestive organs. 575 quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% TCNSL), five replicates, and 23 birds per experimental unit. Live performance was evaluated by weight gain, average feed intake, and feed to conversion ratio. The relative weight of the digestive organs (proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas, liver, small intestine, and large intestine), length of the small and large intestine, and carcass and parts yield (breast, wing, and leg) were determined at the end of the experimental period (35 days). The supplementation of quail diets with TCNSL did not influence live performance or carcass and parts yields. The relative weights of the proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine, and the length of the small intestine and large intestine were not affected by the dietary inclusion of TCNSL. However, TCNSL supplementation had a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on liver relative weight, with the lowest relative weight predicted at 0.33% TCNSL. Quails fed 1% TCNSL showed higher liver relative weight compared with those fed the TCNSL-free diets. The dietary inclusion of up to 1% TCNSL did not influence the performance, carcass traits, or development of the digestive organs of European quails.
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary grape pomace flour (GPF) inclusion on the performance and egg quality of European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) in lay. One hundred ninety-two (192), 42-day-old quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6% grape pomace flour inclusion) with six replicates of eight birds each. The performance parameters egg weight (g), average feed intake (g/bird), total feed intake (g/bird), egg production (%) and feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen) were evaluated, as well as egg quality traits Haugh unit, albumen weight (g), yolk weight (g), eggshell thickness (mm), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), and yolk pigmentation. There was no effect (p>0.05) of dietary GPF levels on egg production, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. Egg weight, albumen weight, and egg specific gravity linearly decreased (p<0.05) as GPM levels increased in the diet. Haugh unit and eggshell thickness were not affected (p>0.05) by the treatments. A quadratic effect (p<0.05) was observed for yolk weight, with an estimated maximal inclusion level of grape pomace flour of 4.18% to obtain the highest yolk weight. A quadratic effect (p<0.05) was also observed on yolk pigmentation, with an estimated minimal level of 3.2% for this parameter. The minimal inclusion of 3.2% of grape pomace flour in quail diets influenced the egg yolk pigmentation, demonstrating its efficiency as a pigmentation additive.
ABSTRACT The pre-slaughter management is one of the predisposing factors to the reduction in the quality of the carcass and broiler meat, mainly for being a stressful condition. This study evaluates the inclusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) in the water used in the diet of pre-slaughter broilers for the first time. The carcass and meat quality parameters were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in the poultry production of an experimental sector of the Federal University of Grande Dourados - UFGD. A total of 2,594 broilers were distributed in an entirely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 3x2x2, with three different lemongrass concentrations in the form of infusion (0. 1 and 5 g/L), two sexes and two genetic strains (Ross 308® and Cobb 500®), and with four replications. After 42 days, 144 broilers were slaughtered, and the quality parameters of carcass and meat were evaluated. A higher incidence of scratches and higher water retention capacity were found in Ross 308® male (p<0.05). Less exudate of breast fillets loss was observed in broiler Ross 308® males 72 h post-mortem (p<0.05). There was an interaction between sex and lemongrass levels in the drinking water of the broilers in the sensory analysis of meat (p<0.05), more preferably of chewiness and juiciness for males undergoing free diet for juiciness and lemongrass in the female diet with 5g/L. The use of lemongrass infusions in pre-slaughter did not bring considerable benefits to the quality of carcass and meat of broiler.
ABSTRACT Adequate environmental temperature control is essential for incubation efficiency. Layer breeder eggs (n=360) were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments, consisting of two incubation temperatures (T1=37.5 °C, control; and T2=39.0 °C, hot), with two incubators per temperature, and 90 eggs per incubator, totaling 360 eggs. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick cloacal and body surface temperatures were not affected by incubation temperature. Eggs incubated at the hot temperature presented greater egg mass loss and higher eggshell conductance than those incubated at the control temperature. Layer chicks derived from eggs incubated at control temperature showed greater absolute weight, yolk-free egg mass, and heavier hearts than those from eggs submitted to heat stress during incubation. The control group presented lower base excess and ionized calcium blood levels. Incubating eggs at temperatures higher than those recommended compromises body and heart development of layer chicks and negatively affects blood ionized calcium availability, and therefore, bone mineralization during embryo development. Efficient temperature control during the incubation of fertile eggs is essential to obtain good quality layer chicks.
ABSTRACT Embryo thermal stimulation has been studied as a means to promote epigenetic changes and to improve broiler health and performance. This study aimed at evaluating immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG, and IgA) titers, serum corticosterone levels, and organ integrity of day-old male Cobb(r) and Ross(r) broilers. Embryos were submitted to hot and cold stimuli (thermal stimulation) on days 14-18 of incubation. The thermal manipulation treatments did not affect immunoglobulin titers of 1 day-old Cobb(r) or Ross(r) chicks, and caused severe bursal lesions (scores 3 and 4) in both strains. However, serum corticosterone levels of Cobb(r) chicks were higher when embryos were submitted to hot stimulus (+1.39ºC) compared with cold stimulus (+36 ºC). Serum corticosterone levels of Ross(r) chicks were not affected by embryo temperature manipulation. The only effect of broiler breeder age was observed on IgM titers of Cobb(r) chicks, which were higher in chicks from 33-wk-old breeders. Further studies are needed to detect the optimal period of embryo thermal stimulation.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70), with five replicates (batch digester model) each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%). Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg-1TS and VS, respectively. The highest methane production, at 120.1 and 151.8 L CH4 kg-1TS and VS, was obtained with the inclusion of 17.5 and 18.0% liquid hatchery waste, respectively. The addition of liquid hatchery waste atratios of up to 15.5%in co-digestion with cattle manure reduced solid and fiber levels in the effluent, and improved biogas and methane production.
ABSTRACT Long storage periods may increase embryo mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period on the weight loss, eggshell surface temperature, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of Japanese quail eggs. Two hundred fertile eggs were collected from a flock of 30-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The eggs were collected for 10 consecutive days after lay, and immediately incubated. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments, corresponding to the number of days eggs were stored between egg collection and setting, with 20 replicates each, was applied. Egg weight loss increased with storage period duration, starting on day 6 (2.1%, on average) and reached 3.26%, on average, in eggs stored for 10 days. The highest hatchability (p>0.05) was obtained in eggs stored for two days, which also lost the least weight (1.20%). Storage period did not influence eggshell surface temperature (p>0.05) during incubation, but higher temperatures (p<0.05) were measured on days 10 and 15 of incubation compared with day 5. Eggs stored for ten days presented the highest weight loss, and therefore, a storage period of up to five days is recommended to maintain the quality of incubated Japanese quail eggs. Furthermore, egg surface temperature increases during the second half of the incubation period as a result of increasing embryonic metabolic rate.
ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating a methodology to estimate the angulation and equilibrium condition, relating them to gait score and the main diseases of the locomotion system in males and females of commercial broiler strains. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement (2x2) was applied, consisting of two sexes and two genetic strains, with five replicates of 53 chickens each. The following characteristics related to broiler locomotion were studied: gait score (GS); incidence of Valgus (VAL) and Varus (VAR) deformities and of pododermatitis (POD); body angle relative the ground (ANG); equilibrium condition (EC); body weight (BW) and breast weight (BrW); and incidence of femoral degeneration (FD), tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and spondylolisthesis (SPO). GS, and VAL and VAR were assessed inside a broiler house. Birds were then photographed to estimate ANG and EC. Birds were sacrificed at 42 days of age and analyzed for FD, TD, and SPO. Breast percentage was not influenced by sex or strain. Males showed better ANG than females, regardless of strain. Overall, the strains studied showed prostrated EC. The correlation between GS and the evaluated traits was low. There was a moderate to high association between EC and ANG both in males and females. GS showed low correlation with locomotion problems, and therefore, it is a poor indicator of skeletal diseases. On the other hand, the moderate to high correlations of ANG and EC with locomotion problems make them better indicators of bone diseases than gait score, which is possibly more related to EC and body posture than to bone pathologies.