Objective: Update the results of the BIOBADASAR registry on safety, duration and causes of treatment interruption after 8 years of follow-up. Methods: BIOBADASAR is a safety record of biological therapies established by the Argentine Society of Rheumatology. The description of BIOBADASAR 3.0 is presented, a cohort of 53 centers in Argentina followed prospectively from August 2010 to January 2018. Results: 4656 patients were registered, 6234 treatments [3765 cases (therapy with biologicals) and 2469 controls (non-biological therapy)]. Treatment was interrupted in 44.6% in cases vs. 27.9% in controls. Main cause of discontinuation was due to inefficiency (40% cases vs. 32% controls). There were 3154 adverse events (2230 in cases vs. 924 in controls), of which 13.6% were tombs (9.8% in cases and 3.7% in controls). The most frequent adverse event (AE) in both groups were infections (43.56% in cases vs. 34.31% in controls, RR: 3.42, 95% CI: 3.02-3.88), and the upper airway pathways (14.5%). Neoplasms were published in 78 cases versus 45 controls (RR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.37-2.86). Conclusions: In this article, there are no different trends regarding safety, duration and causes of interruption of treatment compared to previous reports. Infections were the main causes of treatment discontinuation. The advent of new biological agents and the need for control over long-term security, strengthens the use of this type of registration.
Objetivo: Actualizar los resultados del registro BIOBADASAR sobre seguridad, duración y causas de interrupción del tratamiento luego de 8 años de seguimiento. Métodos: BIOBADASAR es un registro de seguridad de terapias biológicas establecido por la Sociedad Argentina de Reumatología. Se presenta la descripción de BIOBADASAR 3.0, una cohorte compuesta por 53 centros de Argentina seguidos prospectivamente desde agosto de 2010 hasta enero de 2018. Resultados: Se registraron 4656 pacientes, 6234 tratamientos [3765 casos (terapia con biológicos) y 2469 controles (terapia no biológicos)]. Se interrumpió el tratamiento en el 44,6% en los casos vs. 27,9% en los controles. Causa principal de discontinuación fue por ineficacia (40% casos vs. 32% controles). Se presentaron 3154 eventos adversos (2230 en casos vs. 924 en controles), de los cuales el 13,6% fueron graves (9,8% en casos y 3,7% en controles). El evento adverso (EA) más frecuente en ambos grupos fueron las infecciones (43,56% en casos vs. 34,31% en los controles, RR: 3,42; IC 95%: 3,02-3,88), y de ellas las de vías aéreas superiores (14,5%). Las neoplasias se presentaron en 78 casos vs. 45 en controles (RR: 1,98; IC 95%: 1,37-2,86). Conclusiones: En este sexto reporte no se observan tendencias diferentes sobre seguridad, duración y causas de interrupción del tratamiento respecto a informes previos. Las infecciones fueron el principal EA y la ineficacia, seguido por EA y la pérdida de pacientes las principales causas de suspensión del tratamiento. El advenimiento de nuevos agentes biológicos y la necesidad de control en seguridad a largo plazo, fortalece el uso de este tipo de registro.
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to determine the most suitable probe diameter and egg position to perform the eggshell breaking strength test using a texturometer, as well as the most reliable parameter to estimate eggshell quality when no electronic devices are available. Eggshell quality (eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell percentage, eggshell thickness, shell weight per unit surface area) was evaluated as a function of texturometer probe diameter (2, 10, and 75mm), egg type (white and brown) and egg position (horizontal and vertical). In the experiment, 2520 eggs from 60-week-old commercial layers were separated by specific gravity measured by flotation method in saline solution (1.070 to 1.100 g/cm3 with intervals of 0.005 g/cm3).Data were submitted to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design, and means were compared by Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Correlations between characteristics were calculated using the Pearson’s method. The results showed that the most suitable probe diameter for the analysis of eggshell breaking strength was 75 mm, independently of egg positioning or type egg. White eggs should be positioned vertically in relation to the probe, whereas brown can be placed in any position. When it is not possible to evaluate eggshell quality using electronic devices, the measurement of shell weight per unit surface area is recommended.
ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating beak-trimming methods and intensities on the performance, beak length and uniformity, and egg parameters of commercial layers. During the rearing period, birds were distributed in randomized blocks, with a 2x3 factorial design + two treatments, consisting of beak trimming with infrared (IR) radiation (moderate or severe); three IR intensities (low: 42 nm, intermediate: 46 nm, or high: 52 nm); and two control hot blade (HB) beak trimming treatments (moderate or severe) with eight treatments and five replicates of 21 chicks each, totaling 840 birds. During the growing phase (second experiment) the factorial design was modified to 2 x 3 x 2 + 4, comprising two IR beak-trimming intensities (moderate or severe); three IR radiation intensities (low, moderate and high), second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not, and four additional HB beak-trimming treatments (moderate or severe) beak-trimming intensities, and second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not. There were 16 treatments with six replicates of seven birds each, totaling 672 laying hens, out of which 576 were selected for evaluation during the production period, with the same number of treatments and replicates of the previous phase. Weight gain (g), body weight (g), body weight uniformity (%), beak length (mm) and uniformity (%), absence of cannibalism (%), livability (%), egg production (%), feed intake (g), feed conversion per eggmass, eggmass, specific gravity, eggshell strength, Haugh unit, % yolk were evaluated. Beak trimming by infra-red radiation may be employed in commercial laying hens.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beak trimming by hot blade or infrared radiation on production indicators and plasma levels of corticosterone in pullets. During the rearing phase, an entirely random delineation was used a 2 x 3 factorial design (two different techniques for beak trimming x 3 strains), a total of six treatments with six repetitions of 20 hens. In the growing phase, the previous treatments were divided into 12, with eight repetitions with seven hens. These treatments were then distributed in a factorial design of 2 x 3 x 2 (two methodologies for beak trimming during rearing phase x three strains x with or without beak trimming at ten weeks of age). In the rearing phase the birds treated by infrared radiation had a lower total consumption and a longer beak length. In the growing phase, the execution of beak trimming at ten weeks of age, led to a lower total consumption and a lower body weight, but a better food conversion, when compared to those hens that did not have beak treatment. Beak trimming at ten weeks did not change the plasmatic levels of corticosterone.
ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating a methodology to estimate the angulation and equilibrium condition, relating them to gait score and the main diseases of the locomotion system in males and females of commercial broiler strains. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement (2x2) was applied, consisting of two sexes and two genetic strains, with five replicates of 53 chickens each. The following characteristics related to broiler locomotion were studied: gait score (GS); incidence of Valgus (VAL) and Varus (VAR) deformities and of pododermatitis (POD); body angle relative the ground (ANG); equilibrium condition (EC); body weight (BW) and breast weight (BrW); and incidence of femoral degeneration (FD), tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and spondylolisthesis (SPO). GS, and VAL and VAR were assessed inside a broiler house. Birds were then photographed to estimate ANG and EC. Birds were sacrificed at 42 days of age and analyzed for FD, TD, and SPO. Breast percentage was not influenced by sex or strain. Males showed better ANG than females, regardless of strain. Overall, the strains studied showed prostrated EC. The correlation between GS and the evaluated traits was low. There was a moderate to high association between EC and ANG both in males and females. GS showed low correlation with locomotion problems, and therefore, it is a poor indicator of skeletal diseases. On the other hand, the moderate to high correlations of ANG and EC with locomotion problems make them better indicators of bone diseases than gait score, which is possibly more related to EC and body posture than to bone pathologies.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the supplementation of vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet of Leghorn layers on yolk color and on yolk lipid oxidation of eggs stored at room temperature for 10 days. Sixty eggs laid by commercial white layers (Lohmann LSL) fed diets supplemented with different vegetable oils were used. Hens were fed one of the following treatment diets: conventional diet with no oil inclusion (T1); T1 diet with 2.5% linseed oil inclusion (T2); T1 diet with 2.5% canola oil (T3); T1 diet with 2.5% soybean oil (T4); T1 with 5.0% linseed oil (T5); T1 diet with 5.0% canola oil (T6); T1 diet with 5.0% soybean oil (T7); T1 diet with 2.5% linseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil (T8); T1 diet with 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil (T9); and T1 diet with 2.5% linseed oil + 2.5% canola oil (T10). Eggs were evaluated as to yolk lipid peroxidation (TBARS values) and yolk color, as determined by colorimetry and subjective sensorial analysis. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level. It was concluded that the inclusion of vegetable oils in commercial white layer diets does not significantly change egg yolk pigmentation, as colorimetrically evaluated. However, when subjectively assessed, the yolks of the eggs laid by hens fed diets supplemented with vegetable oils tend to be paler. The yolks of the eggs laid by layers fed diets containing sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids presented high lipid oxidation, particularly when compared with those derived from layers fed the diet with no oil supplementation.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on gamma radiation levels on the physical and microbiological characteristics of chicken breast meat. A completely randomized experimental design in a 4x2x3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Treatments consisted of four radiation concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8kGy), two package sealing methods (with or without vacuum), and three storage times (01, 07, or 14 days), with ten replicates each, totaling 240 chicken breast fillets. Packaging and radiation had no influence (p>0.05) on chicken breast meat pH, water retention capacity, or presence of Salmonella spp. Breast fillets not submitted to radiation and vacuum packed presented higher water retention capacity (p<0.05) than those radiated at 4kGy and vacuum packed. Drip loss in fillets radiated at 8kGy and not vacuum packed was higher (p<0.05) than in non-radiated and non-vacuum packed fillets; however, both were not different from the other treatments. Coliform presence increased with storage time in non-radiated samples; however, when these were vacuum-packed, their development was slower. The results of the present experiment suggest that the use of a low radiation dose (2kGy), combined with vacuum packing, may minimize the harmful effects of storage on chicken breast fillets.
Introduction:Sinus lift to permit insertion of implants when alveolar residual bone height is insufficient may be considered an effective procedure. The use of autogenous bone from intraoral or extraoral sources is considered as the gold standard for this procedure. New options of bone substitutes have been emphasizing, such as Straumann(r) BoneCeramic (BC), consisting of 60% of hydroxyapatite and 40% of calcium phosphate, 100% synthetic material that was used in this work.Objective:This investigation was designed to evaluate and compare the behavior of a fully synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% of β-tricalcium phosphate (Straumann(r) Bone-Ceramic) to the autogenous bone graft (ABG) in maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure prior to installation dental implants.Material and method:Ten healthy patients who were partially edentulous in the posterior maxilla were included in this study and submitted to a unilateral maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure, with grafting using either ABG (control group; 5 patients) or BCP (test group; 5 patients). After 6 months of healing implant sites were created and biopsies taken for histological analyses.Result:A primary stability was achieved with all dental implants after the biopsies. Histological investigation showed a viable new bone tissue formed in 4 of 5 BCP specimens. Also, showed close contact between new bone and BCP particles, in 4 of 5 specimens. In 1 of 5 BCP specimens no viable bone tissue was found. Both ABG and BCP produced similar amounts of newly formed bone, with similar histologic appearance.Conclusion:The results indicate that BCP is a suitable material for sinus augmentation for the placement of dental implants.
Introdução:Quando a altura do osso alveolar residual é insuficiente na região posterior da maxila, a elevação do assoalho do seio maxilar visando a viabilizar a instalação de implantes dentários é um procedimento indicado. O enxerto autógeno (EA) de regiões intra ou extraorais é considerado o padrão ouro para esse procedimento. Novas opções de substitutos ósseos vêm surgindo, como o Straumann(r) BoneCeramic (BC) - 60% constituído de hidroxiapatita e 40% de β tricálcio fosfato, 100% sintético -, sendo o material utilizado no presente trabalho.Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar histologicamente o comportamento deste substituto ósseo com o enxerto ósseo autógeno.Material e método:Dez pacientes saudáveis e parcialmente desdentados na região posterior da maxila foram submetidos à elevação do assoalho do seio maxilar previamente à instalação de implantes dentários osseointegráveis, sendo, destes, cinco com EA e cinco com BC. Após seis meses do tempo de integração do enxerto ósseo, as amostras foram coletadas por uma trefina e coradas em hematoxilina e eosina para microscopia.Resultado:Todos os implantes osseointegráveis apresentaram boa estabilidade primária. A análise histológica demonstrou tecido ósseo neoformado viável em quatro das cinco amostras do BC, além de um íntimo contato do tecido ósseo mineralizado recém-formado com as partículas do BC. Em uma amostra do BC, não foi observada formação de osso viável. O tecido ósseo formado a partir do EA e do BC apresentou uma característica histológica similar.Conclusão:O BC se mostrou um material adequado para a elevação do assoalho do seio maxilar previamente à instalação de implantes dentários osseointegráveis.
Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%), with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%), into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit). The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.
Several studies point out that eggs are the main cause of human salmonellosis, particularly when poorly processed or eaten raw. In addition of causing public health problems, the presence of Salmonella hinders international food trade, and therefore, it is a health barrier. There are several predisposing factors for the contamination of internal egg content by Salmonella spp, including eggshell quality, which is related to dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels. In this study, eggs from Japanese quails fed diets containing two different Ca (2.0 or 3.5%) or P (0.25 or 0.45%) levels were evaluated. Three production phases were used in the experiment: starter, intermediate, and final. The presence of Salmonella Enteriditis in the eggshell and internal content in in the periods of 0, 24, 96, and 168 hours after the experimental contamination of the eggs by immersion in broth containing Salmonella Enteriditis. The bacterium was detected in decreasing numbers in the eggshell of eggs from all treatments and during all storage periods. No significant bacterial numbers were found in the internal egg content in none of the treatments during none of the production phases. Therefore, the evaluated Ca and P levels in the diet of Japanese quails did not result in higher or lower public health risk relative to the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal egg content.
This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the supplementation of different vegetable oils at different levels to the diet of commercial layers on egg cholesterol levels and nutritional composition (proteins, total solids, lipids, and ashes) for 112 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments (T1 - control; T2 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil; T3 - inclusion of 2.5% canola oil; T4 - inclusion of 2.5% soybean oil; T5 - inclusion of 5% rapeseed oil; T6 - inclusion of 5% canola oil; T7 - inclusion of 5% soybean oil; T8 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T9 - inclusion 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T10 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% canola oil) of six replicates of eight birds each, totaling 480 birds. Yolk cholesterol levels and nutritional composition were determined on days 20, 60 and 112 days of the experimental period. Data obtained during the experimental period were submitted to analysis of variance. Egg yolks produced by layer fed oils presented lower cholesterol levels after 20 days of inclusion in the experimental diets. On days 60 and 112, cholesterol levels were higher. It was concluded that supplementing layer diets with vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not change the nutritional composition of egg yolks. The supply of diets containing oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce yolk cholesterol content.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become a valuable tool to corroborate aortic stenosis (AS) severity when echocardiography assessment is discordant. Moreover, CMR can provide useful complementary information about AS severity and hemodynamic markers. In particular, the use of advanced 4D flow CMR allows a comprehensive assessment of complex flow alterations produced by AS. This review provides an overview of the added value obtained by standard 2D flow and advanced 4D flow quantification for AS severity assessment and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of current clinical metrics. This includes an introduction of promising new hemodynamic markers, and discusses how these novel makers may identify potential complications and disease progression in patients with AS.
La imagenología de resonancia magnética cardiovascular (RMC) se ha establecido como una importante herramienta para corroborar la severidad de la estenosis aórtica (EA) cuando el examen por ecocardiografía es contradictorio. Además, la RMC puede proveer importante información complementaria con respecto a la severidad de la EA y diversos indicadores hemodinámicos. En particular, el uso de técnicas avanzadas de flujo en 4D por RMC permite una extensiva evaluación de las complejas alteraciones de flujo provocadas por la presencia de la EA. Este artículo de revisión describe de manera detallada el valor agregado obtenido en la práctica clínica con el uso de las técnicas de medición de flujo bidimensionales, así como las técnicas avanzadas de flujo en 4D para la cuantificación y evaluación de la severidad de la EA. De igual modo, se discuten las ventajas y desventajas de los parámetros clínicos comúnmente utilizados para la estratificación de la severidad de la EA. Además, incluye una introducción a nuevos y prometedores índices hemodinámicos, discute su utilidad para la identificación de potenciales complicaciones y de progresión de la EA in vivo.
This study aimed at developing radiographic techniques for the early detection of dyschondroplastic lesions in the tibia of broilers. The experiment was carried out at the facilities of UNIFOR/MG and Formiga and UNIFENAS/ Alfenas with 420 one-day-old male Cobb broilers. At 20 days of age, all birds were radiographed and identified with an alpha-numeric metal ring in the right leg. At 40 days of age, 42 broilers previously selected as a function of bone mineral density and lesion thickness scores were again radiographed and scored, and then sacrificed. Their right tibia was removed for gross and histological examination of the growth plate. The results showed that radiographic techniques are correlated with gross and histological examination and that there was no significant differences among techniques (P>0.05). it was concluded that the use of radiographic examination to identify tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers precludes the use of bone mineral density to diagnose this condition. The non-parametric statistical Chi-square test at 5% significance level was used to analyze the results.
Aiming at evaluating the influence of cyclic temperatures on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails an experiment was carried out with 480 birds after egg production peak. Birds were housed in a bioclimatic chamber with automatic temperature control that contained two rooms, one maintained at thermoneutral temperature (21 ºC) and the other adjusted for the tested cyclic temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 ºC at a time). Each room had a battery of five floors and ten cages, with a capacity of 24 birds per cage, totaling 240 birds per battery. Birds were fed iso-nutritious and iso-caloric diets. Data obtained under the tested cyclic temperatures were compared with those obtained under thermoneutral temperature. At the end of each experimental period (14 days) performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (thermoneutral temperature and tested temperature) and ten replicates of 24 birds each. Cyclic increases of 27 ºC and higher in environmental temperature negatively affected bird performance, with reduced feed intake and consequent reductions in egg weight and mass. A cyclic increase of the environmental temperature to 36 ºC reduced the percentage of saleable eggs and egg production.