The correlation between the chemical composition and the sensory data for 28 cachaça samples was investigated using principal component analysis (PCA). A chemical model was then developed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to classify the distillate samples according to their sensory qualities. This model presented predictive abilities of calibration and validation of 87.4 and 100%, respectively, and was able to recognize correctly 7 out of 9 additional samples according to their sensory evaluations, showing itself as a potential alternative tool of recognizing cachaça sensory qualities.
A correlação entre a composição química e os dados sensoriais de 28 amostras de cachaças foi investigada através de análise de componentes principais (PCA). Um modelo químico usando análise discriminante linear (LDA) para classificar as amostras de cachaças de acordo com suas qualidades sensoriais foi então elaborado. Este modelo apresentou habilidades preditivas de calibração e validação de 87,4 e 100%, respectivamente, e foi capaz de reconhecer corretamente 7 dentre 9 amostras adicionais, apresentando-se como uma ferramenta alternativa potencial para o reconhecimento das qualidades sensoriais de cachaças.
Concentrations of 39 organic compounds were determined in three fractions (head, heart and tail) obtained from the pot still distillation of fermented sugarcane juice. The results were evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's test, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). According to PCA and HCA, the experimental data lead to the formation of three clusters. The head fractions give rise to a more defined group. The heart and tail fractions showed some overlap consistent with its acid composition. The predictive ability of calibration and validation of the model generated by LDA for the three fractions classification were 90.5 and 100%, respectively. This model recognized as the heart twelve of the thirteen commercial cachaças (92.3%) with good sensory characteristics, thus showing potential for guiding the process of cuts.
As concentrações de 39 compostos orgânicos foram determinadas em três frações (cabeça, coração e cauda) obtidas da destilação em alambique do caldo de cana fermentado. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando-se análise de variância (ANOVA), teste de Tukey, análise de componentes principais (PCA), agrupamento hierárquico (HCA) e análise discriminante linear (LDA). De acordo com PCA e HCA, os dados experimentais conduzem à formação de três agrupamentos. As frações de cabeça deram origem a um grupo mais definido. As frações coração e cauda apresentaram alguma sobreposição coerente com sua composição em ácidos. As habilidades preditivas de calibração e validação dos modelos gerados pela LDA para a classificação das três frações foram de 90,5 e 100%, respectivamente. Este modelo reconheceu como coração doze de treze cachaças comerciais (92,3%) com boas características sensoriais, apresentando potencial para a orientação do processo de cortes.
Six wines were distilled in two different distillation apparatus (alembic and column) producing 24 distillates (6 for each alembic fraction - head, heart and tail; 6 column distillates). The chemical composition of distillates from the same wine was determined using chromatographic techniques. Analytical data were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) allowing discrimination of four clusters according to chemical profiles. Both distillation processes influenced the sugarcane spirits chemical quality since two types of distillates with different quantitative chemical profiles were produced after the elimination of fermentation step influence.
The concentration of 14 organic acids of 50 sugarcane spirits samples was determined by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The organic acids analytical quantitative profile in stills and column distilled spirits from wines obtained from the same must were compared. The comparison was also carried in "head", "heart" and "tail fractions of stills distilled spirits. The experimental data were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and pointed out that the distillation process (stills and column) strongly influences the lead spirits' organic acid composition and that producers' operational "cuts off" to produce "tail", "heart" and "head", fractions should be optimized.
The commercial sugar cane spits redistillation decreased up to 92,5% their ethyl carbamate (EC) original content. Quantitative analysis of EC in 15 samples of sugar cane spirit (alembic and column), fresh distilled and collected in situ demonstrated that the urethane is formed mostly after distillation. The average time to achieve the complete EC formation is independent of the diffuse light presence and of the distillation apparatus used. The k obs for urethane formation at 25 ºC was calculate as (3,3 ± 0,5) x 10-5/s and the activation parameters are: ΔH‡ 34 kcal/mol; ΔS‡ - 69 cal/mol K; and ΔG‡ 54 kcal/mol.
Herein, we report the concentration of ethyl carbamate (EC) and copper in 380 samples of sugar-cane spirit and 45 samples of manioc spirit as determined by GC-MS and FAAS respectively. The cyanide content determined spectrophotometrically is reported for the manioc spirit. Sugar cane spirit produced by alembic distillation (70,0 µg L-1) shown a lower content of EC than samples produced by column distillation (270 µg L-1). No simple correlation between the content of EC and copper for sugar cane spirit as well among the concentration of EC, copper, and cyanide for manioc spirit could be observed.
The concentration of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 57 samples of distillates (cachaça, rum, whiskey, and alcohol fuel) has been determined by HPLC-Fluorescence detection. The quantitative analytical profile of PAHs treated by Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) provided a good classification of the studied spirits based on their PAHs content. Additionally, the classification of the sugar cane derivatives according to the harvest practice was obtained treating the analytical data by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), using naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benz[b]fluoranthene, and benz[g,h,i]perylene, as a chemical descriptors.
The hedonic level of commercial cachaças, was evaluated by consumers and by a tasters. The results of sensorial methods analyzed trough Principal Components Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and the Pearson linear correlation indicated that the best classified cachaças were produced in copper stills and aged in oak casks. By contrast the worst classified exhibited as the main features be not aged and high alcohol percentage. The index of preference is positively correlated with the intensity of yellow color, wood flavor, sweetness and fruit aroma. There is a negative preference correlation with the acidity, the taste of alcohol and bitterness.