Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) prevention and control rely on studies of its distribution, characteristics of individuals affected and mode of transmission. CD data in Brazil are scarce; a retrospective analysis of the clinical characteristics of 80 patients treated at the Clinical Hospital of UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil, was performed. METHODS: Patient data records were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty percent of the patients probably got infected through vector-borne transmission, 65% came from endemic areas, a predominance of cardiac and cardiodigestive forms was found among males, and the cardiac form prevailed (51%). CONCLUSIONS: The results update the view on the epidemiology of CD in Campinas, Brazil.
The 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) is a molecular chaperone that assists the parasite Leishmania in returning to homeostasis after being subjected to different types of stress during its life cycle. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of HSP70 transfection of L. amazonensis promastigotes (pTEX-HSP70) in terms of morphology, resistance, infectivity and mitochondrial bioenergetics. The pTEX-HSP70 promastigotes showed no ultrastructural morphological changes compared to control parasites. Interestingly, the pTEX-HSP70 promastigotes are resistant to heat shock, H2O2-induced oxidative stress and hyperbaric environments. Regarding the bioenergetics parameters, the pTEX-HSP70 parasites had higher respiratory rates and released less H2O2 than the control parasites. Nevertheless, the infectivity capacity of the parasites did not change, as verified by the infection of murine peritoneal macrophages and human macrophages, as well as the infection of BALB/c mice. Together, these results indicate that the overexpression of HSP70 protects L. amazonensis from stress, but does not interfere with its infective capacity.
Phytochemical investigation of the hexane extract from the stem of Xylopia laevigata led to the isolation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoids, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 4-epi-kaurenic acid, ent-16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-kauran-19-al, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and ent-16β,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, as well as spathulenol and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. The identification of the compounds was performed on the basis of spectrometric methods including GC-MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR. Potent larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae with LC50 of 62.7 µg mL-1 was found for ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. This compound also showed significant antifungal activity against Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis with MIC values of 62.5 µg mL-1.