ABSTRACT The present study aimed to correlate the age and weight of Girolando heifers with uterine and ovarian development. Sixty heifers between 12 and 36 months old were weighed and subjected to ultrasound assessment to measure the diameters of each uterine horn and ovaries, monthly. These measures continued until their first ovulation. The animals were divided, for data analysis, according to their age into five groups: GI (12 to 14 months), GII (15 to 18 months), GIII (19 to 24 months), GIV (25 to 30 months), and GV (31 to 36 months). The dispersion diagram was used to assess the correlation between data collected monthly from uterus/ovaries and weight/age. An average daily growth of 0.0032 mm was recorded for the right ovary (RO) and 0.0051 mm for the left ovary (LO). The average size of the RO in GI was 17.58 mm and the LO was 15.28 mm; in GII, the RO was 16.72 mm and the LO was 15.89 mm; in GIII, the RO was 18.37 mm and the LO was 16.55 mm; in GIV, the RO was 19.09 mm and the LO was 17.49 mm; and in GV, the RO was 19.89 mm and the LO was 18.96 mm. The uterine horns showed an average daily growth of 0.0064 mm and 0.0071 mm for the right (RU) and left (LU) uterine horn, respectively. The average sizes of the uterine horns per group were: RU, 11.46 mm and LU, 11.48 mm; RU, 12.41 mm and LU, 12.63 mm; RU, 13.16 mm and LU, 13.19 mm; RU 14.30 mm and LU, 14.58 mm; and RU, 16.12 mm and LU, 16.68 mm for the groups GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV, respectively. The heifers showed an average daily weight gain of 0.224 kg and the groups GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV had an average weight of 220.5, 239.3, 287.6, 332.9, and 380.1 kg, respectively. Therefore, weight growth correlates with the growth of the ovaries and uterine horns; furthermore, these data correlate positively as the animals age.
RESUMOO uso inadequado de fertilizantes tem sido uma preocupação crescente, em relação à sustentabilidade agrícola e ambiental. Uma das alternativas para reduzir o impacto de fertilizantes químicos é o uso de inoculantes contendo bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio e promotoras de crescimento vegetal. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de um inoculante à base de Azospirillum brasilense sobre as características de crescimento e produtividade do milho de segunda safra. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 × 5. Os tratamentos incluíram três níveis de inoculação (controle sem inoculante, inoculação na semente e aplicação foliar do inoculante no estágio V4) e cinco doses de adubação nitrogenada em cobertura (0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 %, sendo a dose de 100 % correspondente a 50 kg ha-1 de N na forma de ureia). Os tratamentos que receberam inoculante apresentaram maior crescimento em altura (9,5 % e 16 %), biomassa seca do colmo (49 % e 6,75 %) e biomassa seca da raiz (123 % e 97 %), respectivamente para inoculante na semente e pulverizado, bem como incremento no tamanho da espiga (8 %), teor de clorofila (4 %), massa de 1.000 grãos (12 %) e produção de grãos (29 %), em comparação às plantas não inoculadas. Os efeitos das doses de N foram significativos apenaspara massa de 1.000 grãose produtividade de grãos (kg ha-1), verificando-se que a inoculação na semente proporcionou maior produtividade no milho de segunda safra.
ABSTRACTThe misuse of fertilizers has become a growing concern in terms of agricultural and environmental sustainability. One alternative to reduce the impact of chemical fertilizers is the use of inoculants containing nitrogen-fixing and plant growth promoting bacteria. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of an inoculant with Azospirillum brasilense on the growth and yield of secondharvest maize. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, in a 3 × 5 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of three inoculation methods (control without inoculation, seed inoculation and leaf-sprayed inoculation at the V4 stage) and five cover N-fertilization doses (0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % and 100 %, with the 100 % dose corresponding to 50 kg ha-1 of N as urea). Inoculated plants showed a greater growth for height (9.5 % and 16 %), stem dry biomass (49 % and 6.75 %) and root dry biomass (123 % and 97 %), respectively for seed inoculation and spraying, as well as increases in ear size (8 %), chlorophyll content (4 %), 1,000-grain weight (12 %) and grain yield (29 %), when compared to non-inoculated plants. The effects of N doses were only significant for 1,000-grain weight and grain yield (kg ha-1), with seed inoculation providing a higher yield for second-harvest maize.