Background: Ruthenium (Ru) tetraamines are being increasingly used as nitric oxide (NO) carriers. In this context, pharmacological studies have become highly relevant to better understand the mechanism of action involved. Objective: To evaluate the vascular response of the tetraamines trans-[RuII(NH3)4(Py)(NO)]3+, trans-[RuII(Cl)(NO) (cyclan)](PF6)2, and trans-[RuII(NH3)4(4-acPy)(NO)]3+. Methods: Aortic rings were contracted with noradrenaline (10−6 M). After voltage stabilization, a single concentration (10−6 M) of the compounds was added to the assay medium. The responses were recorded during 120 min. Vascular integrity was assessed functionally using acetylcholine at 10−6 M and sodium nitroprusside at 10−6 M as well as by histological examination. Results: Histological analysis confirmed the presence or absence of endothelial cells in those tissues. All tetraamine complexes altered the contractile response induced by norepinephrine, resulting in increased tone followed by relaxation. In rings with endothelium, the inhibition of endothelial NO caused a reduction of the contractile effect caused by pyridine NO. No significant responses were observed in rings with endothelium after treatment with cyclan NO. In contrast, in rings without endothelium, the inhibition of guanylate cyclase significantly reduced the contractile response caused by the pyridine NO and cyclan NO complexes, and both complexes caused a relaxing effect. Conclusion: The results indicate that the vascular effect of the evaluated complexes involved a decrease in the vascular tone induced by norepinephrine (10−6 M) at the end of the incubation period in aortic rings with and without endothelium, indicating the slow release of NO from these complexes and suggesting that the ligands promoted chemical stability to the molecule. Moreover, we demonstrated that the association of Ru with NO is more stable when the ligands pyridine and cyclan are used in the formulation of the compound.
Fundamento: As tetra-aminas de rutênio cada vez mais se destacam como carreadoras da molécula de óxido nítrico. Desse modo, estudos farmacológicos tornam-se altamente relevantes, afim de melhor compreender o mecanismo de ação envolvido. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta vascular das tetra-aminas trans-[RuII(NH3)4(Py)(NO)]3+, trans-[RuII(Cl)(NO)(Cyclan)](PF6)2 e trans-[RuII(NH3)4(4-acPy)(NO)]3+. Métodos: Anéis de aorta foram pré-contraídos com noradrenalina (10-6M). Após estabilização da tensão, concentração única (10-6M) dos compostos foi adicionada ao banho de incubação. As respostas foram registradas ao longo de 120 minutos. A integridade vascular foi avaliada funcionalmente (acetilcolina 10-6M; nitroprussiato de sódio 10-6M) e histologicamente Resultados: A análise histológica confirmou a presença ou não de células endoteliais nos tecidos analisados. Todos os complexos alteraram a resposta contrátil induzida pela noradrenalina, resultando em aumento de tônus seguido de efeito relaxante. Em anéis com endotélio, a inibição do óxido nítrico endotelial causou redução do efeito contrátil da piridina óxido nítrico. Não foram observadas respostas significativas em anéis com endotélio referente ao composto cyclan óxido nítrico. Por outro lado, em anéis sem endotélio, a inibição da guanilato ciclase reduziu significativamente a resposta contrátil dos complexos piridina óxido nítrico e cyclan óxido nítrico, levando ambos os compostos a um efeito relaxante. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o efeito vascular dos complexos avaliados apresentaram diminuição no tônus vascular induzido pela noradrenalina (10-6M) ao final do tempo de incubação, em anéis com e sem endotélio, indicando liberação lenta da molécula de óxido nítrico do composto estudado e sugerindo que os ligantes causaram estabilidade química à molécula. Demonstramos que a ligação rutênio óxido nítrico é mais estável quando utilizamos os ligantes piridina e cyclan para a formulação do composto.
Cyanate ion stability was studied in aqueous/ethanolic solutions, pH = 4.5 (CH3COOH/NaCH3COO), at different temperatures. Following the decay [(OCN)-] versus time, in the presence of excess C2H5OH, the rate constant for this reaction (k1) was calculated as (2.5 ± 0.3) x 10-4 s-1 at 25 ºC, for 0 < [C2H5OH] < 13.7 x 10-1 mol L-1. For [C2H5OH] > 2.0 mol L-1 a decrease in the numerical value of k1 was observed, reaching 5.2 x 10-5 s-1 when [CH3CH2OH] = 13.7 mol L-1. Variations in the kinetic parameter values ΔH1‡, ΔS1‡ and ΔG1‡ for the cyanate ion decay reaction were observed for solutions at different ethanol concentrations.
Platforms able to storage, release or scavenge NO in a controlled and specific manner is interesting for biological applications. Among the possible matrices for these purposes, dendrimers are excellent candidates for that. These molecules have been used as drug delivery systems and exhibit interesting properties, like the possibility to perform chemical modifications on dendrimers surface, the capacity of storage high concentrations of compounds of interest in the same molecule and the ability to improve the solubility and the biocompatibility of the compounds bonded to it. This review emphasizes the recent progress in the development and in the biological applications of different NO-releasing dendrimers and the nitric oxide release pathways in these compounds.
Plataformas capazes de armazenar, liberar ou capturar NO de forma controlada e específica são de grande interesse tendo-se em vista aplicações biológicas. Dentre as possíveis matrizes que podem ser utilizadas para esse fim, os dendrímeros são excelentes candidatos. Essas moléculas têm sido empregadas em sistemas para o transporte de fármacos e apresentam propriedades interessantes tais como a possibilidade de modificações químicas em sua superfície, a capacidade de estocar altas concentrações de compostos de interesse em uma só molécula e a possibilidade de aumentar a solubilidade e a biocompatibilidade dos compostos a eles ligados. Esta revisão enfatiza os recentes avanços no desenvolvimento e nas aplicações biológicas de diferentes dendrímeros liberadores de NO e a forma em que o óxido nítrico é liberado nesses compostos.
Six wines were distilled in two different distillation apparatus (alembic and column) producing 24 distillates (6 for each alembic fraction - head, heart and tail; 6 column distillates). The chemical composition of distillates from the same wine was determined using chromatographic techniques. Analytical data were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) allowing discrimination of four clusters according to chemical profiles. Both distillation processes influenced the sugarcane spirits chemical quality since two types of distillates with different quantitative chemical profiles were produced after the elimination of fermentation step influence.
The application of multivariate analysis to spectrophotometric (UV) data was explored for distinguishing extracts of cachaça woods commonly used in the manufacture of casks for aging cachaças (oak, cabreúva-parda, jatobá, amendoim and canela-sassafrás). Absorbances close to 280 nm were more strongly correlated with oak and jatobá woods, whereas absorbances near 230 nm were more correlated with canela-sassafrás and cabreúva-parda. A comparison between the spectrophotometric model and the model based on chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) data was carried out. The spectrophotometric model better explained the variance data (PC1 + PC2 = 91%) exhibiting potential as a routine method for checking aged spirits.
The concentration of 14 organic acids of 50 sugarcane spirits samples was determined by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The organic acids analytical quantitative profile in stills and column distilled spirits from wines obtained from the same must were compared. The comparison was also carried in "head", "heart" and "tail fractions of stills distilled spirits. The experimental data were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and pointed out that the distillation process (stills and column) strongly influences the lead spirits' organic acid composition and that producers' operational "cuts off" to produce "tail", "heart" and "head", fractions should be optimized.
The commercial sugar cane spits redistillation decreased up to 92,5% their ethyl carbamate (EC) original content. Quantitative analysis of EC in 15 samples of sugar cane spirit (alembic and column), fresh distilled and collected in situ demonstrated that the urethane is formed mostly after distillation. The average time to achieve the complete EC formation is independent of the diffuse light presence and of the distillation apparatus used. The k obs for urethane formation at 25 ºC was calculate as (3,3 ± 0,5) x 10-5/s and the activation parameters are: ΔH‡ 34 kcal/mol; ΔS‡ - 69 cal/mol K; and ΔG‡ 54 kcal/mol.
Herein, we report the concentration of ethyl carbamate (EC) and copper in 380 samples of sugar-cane spirit and 45 samples of manioc spirit as determined by GC-MS and FAAS respectively. The cyanide content determined spectrophotometrically is reported for the manioc spirit. Sugar cane spirit produced by alembic distillation (70,0 µg L-1) shown a lower content of EC than samples produced by column distillation (270 µg L-1). No simple correlation between the content of EC and copper for sugar cane spirit as well among the concentration of EC, copper, and cyanide for manioc spirit could be observed.
One hundred fifteen cachaça samples derived from distillation in copper stills (73) or in stainless steels (42) were analyzed for thirty five itens by chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The analytical data were treated through Factor Analysis (FA), Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA). The FA explained 66.0% of the database variance. PLS-DA showed that it is possible to distinguish between the two groups of cachaças with 52.8% of the database variance. QDA was used to build up a classification model using acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, isobutyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, acetic acid and formaldehyde as chemical descriptors. The model presented 91.7% of accuracy on predicting the apparatus in which unknown samples were distilled.
The concentration of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 57 samples of distillates (cachaça, rum, whiskey, and alcohol fuel) has been determined by HPLC-Fluorescence detection. The quantitative analytical profile of PAHs treated by Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) provided a good classification of the studied spirits based on their PAHs content. Additionally, the classification of the sugar cane derivatives according to the harvest practice was obtained treating the analytical data by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), using naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benz[b]fluoranthene, and benz[g,h,i]perylene, as a chemical descriptors.
The hedonic level of commercial cachaças, was evaluated by consumers and by a tasters. The results of sensorial methods analyzed trough Principal Components Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and the Pearson linear correlation indicated that the best classified cachaças were produced in copper stills and aged in oak casks. By contrast the worst classified exhibited as the main features be not aged and high alcohol percentage. The index of preference is positively correlated with the intensity of yellow color, wood flavor, sweetness and fruit aroma. There is a negative preference correlation with the acidity, the taste of alcohol and bitterness.
The characterization of dextran in sugars by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been carried out according to the number-average molecular weight (Mn), the weight-average molecular weight (Mw), the Z-average molecular weight (Mz), and the polydispersity (Mw/Mn). The results suggest that all the analyzed thirty sugar samples from São Paulo state were contaminated with two or three different dextran polymers. The collected data clearly point out that the total dextran content together with the mass distribution parameters Mw, Mn, Mz, and Mw/Mn should be considered during the evaluation of the quality of the sugar used for the cachaça sweeting process.
Solid dextrans are thermally stable polysaccharides losing water only at 160ºC. According to IR, X-ray, DTA and DSC data no noticeable changes in dextran configuration occurs at this temperature. The total content of dextrans analyzed in 26 samples of Brazilian sugars and 57 samples of sweetened cachaças ranged from 109.5 to 1840 mg/kg and 1.6 to 11.2 mg/L with medians of 999.8 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/L respectively. Samples of sweeted cachaças have been monitored for turbidity, total soluble dextran content and weight of precipitate formed during 275 days. Precipitate formation is a kinetically controlled process which ends after 275 days when the total concentration of soluble dextrans becomes smaller than 0.25 mg/L.
The presence of ethyl carbamate in cachaças, tiquiras, whiskies and grapes was investigated by GC-MS, monitoring the m/z 62 ion. The external standard method was used for quantitation in 188 samples (126 cachaças, 37 tiquiras, 6 grappas and 19 whiskies). The results of the study for cachaça were analysed considering the geographic origin, distillation type (still or column), bottle coloration (amber or transparent) and ageing. The average contents of ethyl carbamate in cachaças and tiquiras were 0.77 and 2.4 mg L-1, respectively. These values were higher than the mean concentration found in grapes (0.045 mg L-1) and whiskies (0.14 mg L-1). On average the cachaças distilled in column tend to present higher values of ethyl carbamate than those from still. In the sampling studied it was not possible to define a correlation between content of ethyl carbamate, bottle coloration and ageing time.