Abstract The investments in wastewater treatment of swine systems (WTSS) search on safety, health and fulfillment of the requirements of environmental legislation to investigate to the possibilities of economically exploit properly treated effluent. This study analyzed the return on investment of different WTSS. Was being carried out between the months of October of 2013 to May of 2014. For data collection an electronic questionnaire applied through interviews on 37 farms in the State of São Paulo chosen randomly. To analyze the economic feasibility of different WTSS we used the technique of Capital Budget (PAYBACK and IRR). The farms were divided into four categories: GEEBC-generated electricity, biofertilizer and carbon credits; GEEBI-generated electricity and biofertilizer; GEEEL-generated electricity; NGVAP- no generating value-added products. The best economic result was observed in the category GEEBC with an average Payback time of nine years. It was observed that 73% of respondents do not exploit the economic value of the treated effluent, keeping your investments with a view to contemplate the environmental regulations.
Resumo Os investimentos em sistemas de tratamento de resíduos de suínos (STRS) buscam muito mais contemplar questões de segurança, sanidade e de atendimento a requisitos da legislação ambiental do que investigar possibilidades de explorar economicamente os resíduos devidamente tratados. Este estudo analisou o retorno de investimentos de diferentes STRS sendo realizado entre os meses de outubro de 2013 a maio de 2014. Para a coleta de dados, foi elaborado um questionário eletrônico aplicado por meio de entrevistas em 37 granjas do estado de São Paulo escolhidas aleatoriamente. Para análise de viabilidade econômica dos diferentes STRS, utilizou-se a técnica de orçamento de capital (PAYBACK e TIR). As granjas foram divididas em quatro categorias: GEEBC - Geração de energia elétrica, biofertilizante e créditos de carbono; GEEBI - Geração de energia elétrica e biofertilizante; GEEEL - Geração de energia elétrica; SGPVA - Sem geração de produtos de valor agregado. O melhor resultado econômico foi observado na categoria GEEBC com tempo médio de retorno financeiro de nove anos. Observou-se que 73% dos pesquisados não exploravam o valor econômico dos resíduos tratados, mantendo seus investimentos com intuito de contemplar a legislação ambiental vigente.
Abstract The increase in the number of studies related to the health of university students has attracted attention at the time of COVID-19. This initiative contributes to preparing the school environment for the return of face-to-face activities with conducts that minimize the damage caused by the pandemic. The role of each actor in the educational scenario is fundamental for us to be able to reap good fruits after this storm.
Abstract Purpose: To quantify and compare the expression of stromal elements in prostate adenocarcinoma of different Gleason scores with non-tumor area (control). Methods: We obtained 132 specimens from samples of prostate peripheral and transition zone. We analyzed the following elements of the extracellular matrix: collagen fibers, elastic system, smooth muscle fibers and blood vessels. The tumor area and non-tumor area (control) of the TMA (tissue microarray) were photographed and analyzed using the ImageJ software. Results: The comparison between the tumor area and the non-tumor area showed significant differences between stromal prostate elements. There was an increase of collagen fibers in the tumor area, mainly in Gleason 7. Elastic system fibers showed similar result, also from the Gleason 7. Blood vessels showed a significant increase occurred in all analyzed groups. The muscle fibers exhibited a different behavior, with a decrease in relation to the tumor area. Conclusions: There is a significant difference between the extracellular matrix in prostate cancer compared to the non-tumor area (control) especially in Gleason 7. Important modifications of the prostatic stromal elements strongly correlate with different Gleason scores and can contribute to predict the pathological staging of prostate cancer.
SUMMARY: The renal glomerulus is coated by fenestrated endothelial cells and externally covered by specialized epithelial cells, known as podocytes. Scanning electron microscopy becomes an important and effective tool for its studies. Normally, samples destined for scanning microscopy are covered with a thin metallic layer. However, this step can be dispensed for some analyzes. We aimed to compare coated and uncoated samples for evaluation of the glomerular morphology of the Wistar rat kidney. Cortical region of the kidney of the 5month-old male Wistar rats were used. The fragments followed the routine procedure for scanning electron microscopy processing. Half of 10 fragments were coated with palladium gold and the remaining were not coated. Auriga Compact FIB - SEM scanning electron microscope was used to observe the samples. Different increases and voltages was evaluated. For the uncoated samples, when using voltages of 2 KV (or higher) a great charging was observed, impairing the use of such voltage. Thus, these samples were always observed under voltage of 0.5 KV. On the other hand, in the coated samples, the use of 2 KV was adequate. Almost as a consequence, in the coated samples, the podocyte structures were better characterized, generating better images. Inversely, in the uncoated samples, it was possible to visualize the desired structures and to detect the morphological characteristics of these. The results showed that it is possible to use kidney samples without previous coating to evaluate the glomerular morphology at the ultrastructural level, serving as a tool in the study of pathologies.
RESUMEN: El glomérulo renal está recubierto por células endoteliales fenestradas y cubierto externamente por células epiteliales especializadas, conocidas como podocitos. La microscopía electrónica de barrido se convierte en una herramienta importante y efectiva para sus estudios. Normalmente, las muestras destinadas a microscopía de barrido se cubren con una capa metálica delgada. Sin embargo, este paso se puede dispensar para algunos análisis. El objetivo fue comparar muestras recubiertas y no recubiertas para evaluar la morfología glomerular del riñón de rata Wistar. Se utilizó la región cortical del riñón de ratas Wistar macho de 5 meses de edad. Se realizó el procedimiento de rutina para el procesamiento de microscopía electrónica de barrido. La mitad de 10 fragmentos se recubrieron con oro paladio y los restantes no se recubrieron. Se utilizó un microscopio electrónico de barrido SEM Auriga Compact FIB para observar las muestras. Se evaluaron diferentes aumentos y voltajes. Para las muestras no recubiertas, al usar voltajes de 2 KV (o más) se observó una gran carga, impidiendo el uso de dicho voltaje. Por lo tanto, estas muestras siempre se observaron a bajo voltaje de 0,5 KV. Por otro lado, en las muestras recubiertas, el uso de 2 KV fue adecuado. Como consecuencia, en las muestras recubiertas, las estructuras de los podocitos se caracterizaron mejor, generando mejores imágenes. Inversamente, en las muestras no recubiertas, fue posible visualizar las estructuras deseadas y detectar las características morfológicas de éstas. Los resultados mostraron que es posible utilizar muestras de riñón sin recubrimiento previo para evaluar la morfología glomerular a nivel ultraestructural, que sirve como una herramienta en el estudio de patologías.
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate if late hormonal replacement is able to recover the prostatic tissue modified by androgenic deprivation. Materials and Methods: 24 rats were assigned into a Sham group; an androgen deficient group, submitted to bilateral orchiectomy (Orch); and a group submitted to bilateral orchiectomy followed by testosterone replacement therapy (Orch+T). After 60 days from surgery blood was collected for determination of testosterone levels and the ventral prostate was collected for quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis. The acinar epithelium height, the number of mast cells per field, and the densities of collagen fibers and acinar lumen were analyzed by stereological methods under light microscopy. The muscle fibers and types of collagen fibers were qualitatively assessed by scanning electron microscopy and polarization microscopy. Results: Hormone depletion (in group Orch) and return to normal levels (in group Orch+T) were effective as verified by serum testosterone analysis. The androgen deprivation promoted several alterations in the prostate: the acinar epithelium height diminished from 16.58±0.47 to 11.48±0.29μm; the number of mast cells per field presented increased from 0.45±0.07 to 2.83±0.25; collagen fibers density increased from 5.83±0.92 to 24.70±1.56%; and acinar lumen density decreased from 36.78±2.14 to 16.47±1.31%. Smooth muscle was also increased in Orch animals, and type I collagen fibers became more predominant in these animals. With the exception of the densities of collagen fibers and acinar lumen, in animals receiving testosterone replacement therapy all parameters became statistically similar to Sham. Collagen fibers density became lower and acinar lumen density became higher in Orch+T animals, when compared to Sham. This is the first study to demonstrate a relation between mast cells and testosterone levels in the prostate. This cells have been implicated in prostatic cancer and benign hyperplasia, although its specific role is not understood. Conclusion: Testosterone deprivation promotes major changes in the prostate of rats. The hormonal replacement therapy was effective in reversing these alterations.
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the glomerular number after different warm ischemia times. Methods: Thirty two pigs were assigned into four groups. Three groups (G10, G20, and G30) were treated with 10, 20, and 30 minutes of left renal warm ischemia. The sham group underwent the same surgery without renal ischemia. The animals were euthanized after 3 weeks, and the kidneys were collected. Right kidneys were used as controls. The kidney weight, volume, cortical-medullar ratio, glomerular volumetric density, volume-weighted mean glomerular volume, and the total number of glomeruli per kidney were obtained. Serum creatinine levels were assessed pre and postoperatively. Results: Serum creatinine levels did not differ among the groups. All parameters were similar for the sham, G10, and G20 groups upon comparison of the right and left organs. The G30 group pigs' left kidneys had lower weight, volume, and cortical-medullar ratio and 24.6% less glomeruli compared to the right kidney. A negative correlation was found between warm ischemia time and glomerular number. Conclusions: About one quarter of glomeruli was lost after 30 minutes of renal warm ischemia. No glomeruli loss was detected before 20 minutes of warm ischemia. However, progressive glomerular loss was associated with increasing warm ischemia time.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the glomerular loss after arteriovenous or arterial warm ischemia in a swine model. METHODS: Twenty four pigs were divided into Group Sham (submitted to all surgical steps except the renal ischemia), Group AV (submitted to 30 minutes of warm ischemia by arteriovenous clamping of left kidney vessels), and Group A (submitted to 30 minutes of ischemia by arterial clamping). Right kidneys were used as controls. Weigh, volume, cortical volume, glomerular volumetric density (Vv[Glom]), volume-weighted glomerular volume (VWGV), and the total number of glomeruli were measured for each organ. RESULTS: Group AV showed a 24.5% reduction in its left kidney Vv[Glom] and a 25.4% reduction in the VWGV, when compared to the right kidney. Reductions were also observed when compared to kidneys of sham group. There was a reduction of 19.2% in the total number of glomeruli in AV kidneys. No difference was observed in any parameters analyzed on the left kidneys from group A. CONCLUSIONS: Renal warm ischemia of 30 minutes by arterial clamping did not caused significant glomerular damage, but arteriovenous clamping caused significant glomerular loss in a swine model. Clamping only the renal artery should be considered to minimize renal injury after partial nephrectomies.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. METHODS: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. RESULTS: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine.
ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the protective effect of L-Glutamine in animals undergone to ventral radiation when the target organ is not the prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into groups of 10 animals each: Controls (C), maintained under standard conditions and not exposed to radiation, Radiated group (R) undergone to abdominal radiation only and Radiated plus supplemented by L-glutamine group (R+G). The animals of group R+G were supplemented with L-glutamine at the beginning of the experiment until death in the 22nd day. The ventral prostate was dissected and processed for morphometrical analysis. The epithelial height, collagen density and acinar area were objectively assessed in histological sections. Results Epithelial height was significantly reduced in R group in comparison to C group (p= 0.005). However, there was no statistical difference between the C and R+G groups. Collagen surface density in the C and R groups were not statistically different, but a significant difference was observed when comparing groups R+G and R (p= 0.040). The R+G group values did not differ significantly from C group. The acinar prostate area of group R was similar to that of C (p= 0.971), but in R+G it was significantly reduced when compared with the C (p= 0.038) and R (p= 0.001) groups. Conclusions Pelvic radiation promotes structural modifications in ventral prostate of rats, which can be reduced by L-Glutamine.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the penile morphological modifications of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: two control groups, 105- and 65-day-old (C105 and C65, respectively) injected with peanut oil (vehicle); and two treated groups, 105- and 65-day-old (T105 and T65, respectively) injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg Kg-1 of body weight. The rats were injected once a week for eight weeks. The rats were then killed and their penises were processed for histomorphometric analyses. The mean of each parameter was statistically compared. RESULTS: A corpus cavernosum reduction of 12.5% and 10.9% was observed in the T105 and T65 groups, respectively, when compared with their respective control groups. The cavernosum smooth muscle surface density diminished by 5.6% and 12.9% in the T65 and T105 groups, respectively, when compared with their controls. In contrast, the sinusoidal space increased by 17% in the T105 group and decreased by 9.6% in the T65 group. CONCLUSION: The use of supra-physiological doses of AAS promotes structural changes in the rat penis, by altering the proportions of corpus cavernosum tissues, in both pubertal and adult treated animals.
<title>ABSTRACT</title><sec><title>Purpose:</title><p>To evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets on body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and testicular morphology in rats seven months old.</p></sec><sec><title>Materials and Methods:</title><p>Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), HF-SP (high fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). The rats were fed for 16 weeks. Blood samples, testes and genital fat deposits were collected for analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test, considering p<0.05 as statistically significant.</p></sec><sec><title>Results:</title><p>Different high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The genital fat deposits were higher in the high-fat groups (HF-S, HF-P, HF-SP) (p=0.0004). Regarding serum parameters, the animals in the HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0021). All of the hyperlipidemic groups showed hyperleptinemia (p=0.0019). Concerning the testis, the HF-S group showed a reduction on the seminiferous epithelium height (p=0.0003) and cell proliferation (p=0.0450). Seminiferous tubule diameter was lower in the HF-SP than in the SC group (p=0.0010).</p></sec><sec><title>Conclusions:</title><p>The high fat diet administration, independent of the lipid quality, promotes overweight. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids (lard) alters the carbohydrate metabolism and the testicular morphology with reductions of seminiferous epithelium height, seminiferous tubule diameter and cell proliferation which could be related to a disturbance of spermatogenesis.</p></sec>
PURPOSE:To investigate the structural and functional changes induced by corticosterone (CORT) in the ventral prostrate (VP) of rats in order to study chronic stress effects in the prepubertal phase.METHODS:Wistar rats received daily saline or CORT injections during the pubertal period from the 5th to 25th day of postnatal life. The animals were distributed into four groups: 1 - Control (n=5); 2 - Control 99mTc-P (n=5); 3 - Treated with CORT (n=14); 4 - Treated with CORT and 99mTc-P (n=10). All rats were sacrificed at two months of age. Technical tissue uptakes of 99mTc-P were used to evaluate the functional and stereological methods for morphological analysis.RESULTS:Acini distribution in the group treated with CORT differed significantly (p<0.0001) from the control. The control group's epithelial average height (10.01±0.24 microns) was statistically significant (p<0.0001) from rats treated with CORT (19.27±0.73microns). The collagen distribution was lower in the treated group (2.79%) when compared to control (3.97%). The radioactivity percentage in the groups marked with 99mTc-P (%Ati/g) did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference (p=0.285897).CONCLUSION:Chronic administration of corticosterone in prepubertal rats causes changes in their acinar structure and their ventral prostate stroma, indicating possible deleterious effects of this hormone.
PURPOSE:To evaluate the structure of the endopelvic fascia in prostates of different weights.METHODS: We studied 10 patients with BPH (prostates>90g); 10 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) (prostates<60g) and five young male cadavers (control group). During the surgery a small sample of endopelvic fascia was obtained. We analyzed elastic fibers, collagen and smooth muscle. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the one-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni test and a p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS:The mean of the prostate weight was 122 g in BPH patients, 53.1g in PAC patients and 18.6g in control group. Quantitative analysis documented that there are no differences (p=0.19) in Vv of elastic fibers and in Vv of type III collagen (p=0.88) between the three groups. There was a significant difference (p=0<0.0001) in the quantification of SMC in patients with prostates >90g (mean=9.61%) when compared to patients with prostates <60g (mean=17.92%) and with the control group (mean=33.35%).CONCLUSION:There are differences in endopelvic fascia structure in prostates>90g, which can be an additional factor for pre-operatory evaluation of radical prostatectomy.
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to analyze the bladder wall modifications after a chronic treatment with high doses of corticosterone in prepubertal rats. METHODS: This study included 26 male rats assigned into four groups: T30 was treated with corticosterone until 29 days of age and killed at day 30, while T65 group received the same treatment but was killed at day 65. Each group had its own control group (C30 and C65). For treated animals, daily intraperitoneal injections of corticosterone (20 mg/Kg) were administered between 7th and 29th day of life. Bladders were removed and collagen, smooth muscle, elastic fibers system, vascular density and epithelium were analyzed by morphometrical methods, immunofluorescence, and biochemistry. RESULTS: Vascular density in lamina propria was reduced by 40% (p<0.05) in group T65. Collagen organization was altered in T30 and T65, although total collagen concentration was unchanged. The T65 group had an increase in elastic system fibers. There was no difference in epithelial height and cell density between the groups. Concerning the smooth muscle fibers density we observed a 19% increase (p<0.05) in the T65 group. CONCLUSION: Prepubertal administration of corticosterone induces structural modifications in the bladder of rats in a medium term analysis.